Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 The Roman Republic. Ancient Roman Cities Most ancient cities in Italy were built on hilltops because they could defend their cities better."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 The Roman Republic
Ancient Roman Cities Most ancient cities in Italy were built on hilltops because they could defend their cities better.
Remus and Romulus are legendary brothers whose father was Aeneas, a Trojan hero. After they grew up they became angry with one another, battling until Remus was killed by Romulus. Romulus founded and named the city of Rome after himself.
The Early Roman Empire
The Early Roman Republic The government the Romans created in 509 BC was a republic. In a republic, people elect leaders to govern them.
The most powerful members of the Roman republic were the patricians. Patricians were powerful and wealthy land owners or nobles.
The government changed in the republics. The Patricians no longer had the greatest influence because the Plebeians formed a council and elected their own officials. The Plebeians were the common people of Rome.
Magistrates The first part of Rome’s government: Magistrates are officials elected every year. Some were judges. Others managed Rome’s finances and organized games and festivals.
To keep anyone from becoming too powerful, the Romans elected two consuls each year. These were the most powerful magistrates in Rome. They ran the city and led the army.
The Senate The second part of Rome’s government was the Senate. This was a council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advise the city’s leaders. It was originally created to advise Rome’s kings. They gained control of financial affairs. They held office for life.
Assemblies The third part of Rome’s government protected and represented the common people. It had two branches. Both patricians and plebeians took part in the assemblies. Their primary job was to elect the magistrates who ran the city of Rome. Roman citizens could take part in assemblies all their adult lives.
Tribunes The second branch of the assembly was the tribunes, who were elected by the plebeians and remained in office one year. The tribunes had the power to veto any action by government officials. “Veto” means “I forbid”, in Latin, the language of the Romans.
The United States Constitution was written to protect people’s rights. The Romans created the Roman Law of the Twelve Tables to protect the rights of their citizens.
Like the United States Government, the Romans had a system of checks and balances. This system was put into place so one part of the government would not become too strong.
The Romans loved to be out in the city. The forum was the center of life and daily activity in ancient Rome.
The Forum Today The Forum in Ancient Times
Hannibal was a famous leader from Carthage, Tunisia, who attacked Rome during the Second Punic War. He used elephants to cross the Alps to reach Rome.
Hannibal Crossing the Alps
Elephants In Battle
6,000 soldiers made up the incredibly brave and effective Roman legions.
Tribunes who worked for the good of the poor people of Rome Bothers Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were Tribunes. Both worked for the benefit of the poor people of Rome. Both lost their lives in doing so.
His idea allowed poor people to join the army Gaius Marius His actions led to civil war in Rome. eventually he became a dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Spartacus A former gladiator, Spartacus, led an uprising of the slaves in Rome, who were being treated very badly. He was killed in battle during the revolt. The revolt fell apart. The Romans executed 6,000 rebellious slaves.