2Ancient Roman CitiesMost ancient cities in Italy were built on hilltops because they could defend their cities better.
3Remus and Romulus are legendary brothers whose father was Aeneas, a Trojan hero. After they grew up they became angry with one another, battling until Remus was killed by Romulus. Romulus founded and named the city of Rome after himself.
5The Early Roman Republic The government the Romans created in 509 BC was a republic. In a republic, people elect leaders to govern them.
6The most powerful members of the Roman republic were the patricians The most powerful members of the Roman republic were the patricians. Patricians were powerful and wealthy land owners or nobles.
7The government changed in the republics The government changed in the republics. The Patricians no longer had the greatest influence because the Plebeians formed a council and elected their own officials. The Plebeians were the common people of Rome.
9Magistrates The first part of Rome’s government: Magistrates are officials elected every year. Some were judges. Others managed Rome’s finances and organized games and festivals.
10To keep anyone from becoming too powerful, the Romans elected two consuls each year. These were the most powerful magistrates in Rome. They ran the city and led the army.
11The SenateThe second part of Rome’s government was the Senate. This was a council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advise the city’s leaders. It was originally created to advise Rome’s kings. They gained control of financial affairs.They held office for life.
12AssembliesThe third part of Rome’s government protected and represented the common people. It had two branches. Both patricians and plebeians took part in the assemblies. Their primary job was to elect the magistrates who ran the city of Rome. Roman citizens could take part in assemblies all their adult lives.
13TribunesThe second branch of the assembly was the tribunes, who were elected by the plebeians and remained in office one year.The tribunes had the power to veto any action by government officials.“Veto” means “I forbid”, in Latin, the language of the Romans.
14The United States Constitution was written to protect people’s rights The United States Constitution was written to protect people’s rights. The Romans created the Roman Law of the Twelve Tables to protect the rights of their citizens.
15Like the United States Government, the Romans had a system of checks and balances. This system was put into place so one part of the government would not become too strong.
16The Romans loved to be out in the city The Romans loved to be out in the city. The forum was the center of life and daily activity in ancient Rome.
24Tribunes who worked for the good of the poor people of Rome BothersTiberius andGaius Gracchuswere Tribunes.Both worked forthe benefit of thepoor people ofRome. Both losttheir lives indoing so.
25His actionsled to civilwar inRome.eventuallyhe becameadictatorHis ideaallowedpoor peopleto join thearmyLuciusCorneliusSullaGaiusMarius
26Spartacus A former gladiator, Spartacus, led an uprising of the slaves in Rome,who were beingtreated verybadly.He was killed inbattle during therevolt.The revolt fellapart. The Romansexecuted6,000 rebelliousslaves.