2 The Geography of ItalyThe geography of Italy made travel difficult, but helped the Romans prosper.The Alps in the north and the Apennines along Italy are the major mountain ranges.Romans were able to grow a wide variety of crops because of the good climate.The Romans used the hills for defense.They captured water from mountains for crops and drinking.
3 Rome’s Legendary Origins Romulus and Remus were twins who were put in a basket and sent down river. They were raised by a shewolf and are supposed to be the founders of Rome (myth).The legendary beginning made the Roman Empire more stable because the people living there felt their country was special and didn’t want to destroy from within.
4 The Early Republic Once a monarchy, the Romans created a republic. During difficult wars, the Romans elected a dictator (ruler with almost absolute power)The monarchy was ruled by a king or queen, and the republic was lead by elected officials.During the first 50 years, the Roman Republic faced wars with many victories, but also lost many lives and property.
5 Roman Society Divided in two groups. Patricians Plebeians Wealthy, powerful citizensCommon peopleNoblesPeasants, craftspeople, traders, etc.Small portion of populationMajority of populationOnce controlled all aspects of governmentGained right to participate in govt.After 218 BC couldn’t tradeCould become traders so many became wealthy
6 PlebeiansIn 494 BC plebeians formed a council and elected their own officials.They wanted a change made in the government.Before this, only patricians ruled all aspects of government.
7 Roman GovernmentRoman government was made up the the Magistrates, Senate, and Assemblies & Tribunes (Tripartite Government = 3 parts)Magistrates - the most powerful/ran the city and in charge of the army/served for one yearSenate - advised magistrates/served for lifeAssemblies & Tribunes - represented common people, could veto actions by other officials.
8 Written Laws Keep Order The first Roman laws were carved into 12 bronze tablets.The laws were displayed in the forum (public meeting place), so everyone would know the laws.The Twelve Tables dealt with court laws, marriage, sacred laws, debt, father’s rights over his family, ownership of land and possessions, and crimes.Although the laws changed over time, the Twelve Tables were a symbol of how Roman society was governed by laws.
9 The Roman Forum This is where the Twelve Tables were kept. Popular meeting place in the center of RomePeople went there to shop, talk and gossip
10 Growth of Territory and Trade The Roman legion (6,000 soldiers) and Roman century (groups of 100 soldiers) helped expand the Roman Empire.The small farms began to disappear as lots of people moved to Rome, and their land was bought by wealthy Romans.These small farms were then combined in to large farms and worked by slaves.Rome’s population became so large that local farmers couldn’t provide enough food, so merchants imported food from other regions along the Mediterranean.
11 Rome Grows Beyond Italy The Punic Wars began around 218 BC when a Carthaginian (a city in northern Africa) Empire general set out for Rome (hoping for a defeat)The city of Carthanginian was attacked by the Roman army while Hannibal was en route to Rome. The city of Carthage was burned down and most of its people killed or forced into slavery.During the Punic Wars, Rome took control of Sicily, Corsica, Spain, and North Africa.Hannibal
12 Crisis Strike the Republic The wealthy Romans began to get richer and the poor started to become more poor.Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus tried to help the poor by creating farms for them to prevent rebellions.This caused riots between the rich and poor, and eventually both brothers were killed.Violence increased after their deaths because people saw the use of violence as a way to get political power.
13 Review What is the myth of Romulus and Remus? What is a Republic? Who were plebeians and patricians?Who are Magistrates?Who were the Assemblies?Who were the Tribunes?What were the Twelve Tables?What buildings were in the forum?Why did food have to be imported?What was a Roman Legion? Century?Who were the Punic Wars between? Who won?Why were there riots between the rich and poor?