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England France The Hundred Year War Crusades

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1 England France The Hundred Year War Crusades

2 Development of England People Anglo-Saxons: From Demark Settle in England Normans: From Normandy Settle in England Beat the Anglo-Saxons and take over

3 Early Major Kings of England 1. Edward the Confessor 2. William the Conqueror 3. Henry II

4 Norman Conquest 1. William the Conqueror is Duke of Normandy 2. Invades England 3. William vs. Harold Godwinson (Norman) (Anglo-Saxon) 4. Battle of Hastings


6 Norman Conquest 5. Harold Godwinson dies Arrow to the eye William wins 6. William controls England and declares it his personal property

7 English Kings of Plantagenet Dynasty Henry II Richard the Lion HeartedJohn I the Softsword Edward I

8 Foundations of English Govt. Common Law: Unified body of law from rulings of England’s royal judges that serves as the basis of law Magna Carta Document guaranteeing basic political rights in England drawn up by nobles and approved by King John Parliament: A body of representatives that makes law for a nation

9 France Hugh Capet Duke from Paris France who started the Capetian Dynasty by controlling French trade routes. Capetian Dynasty: Family line of kings from Hugh Capet that lasted 300 years They unite France from 47 provinces into one nation

10 France Philip Augustus (Philip II) King of France Wanted to weaken English power because they stole land from France Able to weaken England by taking over Normandy which tripled the size of the kingdom Maintains this by creating a central government with officials who ruled provinces





15 Hundred Year War Causes Effects England stealing land from France Edward III (England) claimed the French throne that started the war Feelings of Nationalism rose in England and France Power increased in France (Won) England suffered internal turmoil Why? What land did they lose?

16 Major Moments Early English victories Battle of Crecy, Poitiers, Agnicourt In these battles the English were completely outnumbered, but made the French flee Why? English Longbow (New Weapon) 6ft tall bow that could launch an arrow up to 200 yards away The “Machine Gun” of the middle ages

17 Major Moments Joan of Arc French peasant woman who heard “voices” from God to defeat the English Major victory in the Battle of Orleans Names Charles VII king of France and reclaims land taken by England Gets captured by the English Tried as a witch for hearing “voices” and dies Charles VII does nothing

18 The Crusades Causes Seljuk Turks invade Jerusalem and kill 3000 Christians Merchants and Pope wants new trade routes What do they want? European noble fighting among themselves What war again? Regain Control of the Holy Land

19 The Crusades Effects Men gone to fight so women have new roles Managed estates/manors, shops and inns Trade expanded from Europe to Southwest Asia England/Spain to India/China

20 Effects Weakened feudalism Made kings more powerful and weakened power of the Pope Left a legacy of bitterness and hate between Muslims and Christians Growth of towns and universities

21 Important Events of the Crusades The Crusades: Byzantine Emperor, Alexius Commenus, needs helps from invading Turks Pope Urban II Declares they should help because this is the Holy Land and it is a holy war for Christians

22 1 st and 2 nd Crusade: Jerusalem 3 armies combine together Poor leadership Eventually capture Jerusalem But destroyed in Muslim counterattack by their leader Saladin

23 3 rd Crusade Europe strikes back 3 armies again Philip II, Frederick I, Richard the Lion Hearted Problems Philip and Richard argue and Philip leaves Frederick drowns sailing to Jerusalem Richard is left alone to fight

24 3 rd Crusade Eventually Richard and Saladin hold a truce and Richard returns to England, but is killed along the way 4 th Crusade One final attempt to free Jerusalem from Muslim control But the knights instead raid Constantinople and leave Jerusalem alone

25 Success from the Crusades New roles for women Expanded trade Growth of European Towns and Universities

26 Gothic Architecture Ribbed Vaults Flying buttresses Pointed arches Tall Spires

27 Mongols and Russia

28 The Mongols Location: The Eastern Steppe (plateau) above China Life: They were nomadic people that lived in clans Herded and domesticated animals

29 Unification Genghis Khan united the Mongols Defeated each of his rivals until he was the only one left Invaded China but went west because the Muslims murdered his tradesmen and ambassador Invaded Central Asia to defeat the Muslims when his invasions were complete he conquered all of Central Asia

30 Heirs After Genghis Khan his empire was split into four parts Each part was ruled by one of his grandchildren

31 Pax Mongolia The empire stretched from China (east) to Russia (west) Also it stretched from the Himalaya's (south) to the Baltic Sea (north) Pax Mongolia means Mongol Peace This peace allowed safe travel for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries across the empire

32 Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan He conquered China, Mongolia, Korea, and Tibet Became the Emperor of China

33 Loss to Japan The Mongols tried to invade Japan It failed because a typhoon (storm) destroyed the invading Mongol fleet The Japanese called this the “kamikaze” or divine wind because they believed the spirits helped them defeat the Mongols

34 Mongols rule China There was complete separation between Mongols and the Chinese Mongols controlled the highest levels in the government, but gave local power to Chinese officials However Mongols hired more foreigners than rely on the Chinese because they believed that foreigners would not rebel against them

35 Marco Polo European trader who traveled the Silk Road with his father His father dies when they reach China, but Marco Polo lives on and even serves under Kublai Khan. His significance is that he brought ideas to Europe and explained new trade routes One of the new inventions he explains are black stones that burn, which he was referring to coal

36 Mongols invade Russia When the Mongols spread west they killed millions and millions of people Literally fields were covered with dead corpses Therefore there was “no eye remained to weep”

37 Mongol requirements The two major requirements when the Mongols secured their hold on Russia…. 1. Absolute obedience 2. Massive tributes (taxes)

38 Russian rebellion From the city of Moscow the Russians begin to rebel against the Mongols The first advantage were the three rivers: Volga, Dnieper, Don This allowed the Russians to infiltrate deep into the Russian landscape and outmaneuver the Mongols

39 Ivan III Ivan III was a rich Russian merchant who used the three rivers to his advantage to acquire much influence Eventually he challenged the Mongols openly The armies met, but the Mongols soon realized that they were out matched because Ivan’s influence in Russia He names himself the Czar or king of Russia

40 The Church Originally the Church acted as a mediator between the Mongols and the Russians However, they changed positions when Ivan III gained power and were messengers to help spread Ivan’s influence to expel the Mongols since he was Christian

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