One American’s Story 1) Thaddeus Stevens was a Pennsylvania congressman who became a leader of the Radical Republicans. 2) This group wanted to use federal power to promote full citizenship in the South for Freed African Americans.
Reconstruction Begins 1) After the Civil War ended, the South faced the challenge of building a new society not based on slavery. 2) Reconstruction lasted from 1865-1877 3) Lincoln promised to reunify the nation before he died and planned to quickly reinstate the Southern states 4) The president established the Freedmen’s Bureau. This federal agency set up schools and hospitals for African Americans and distributed clothes, food, and fuel. 5) When Lincoln was killed, Andrew Johnson became president. Johnson was a Democrat. 6) Johnson tried to take over where Lincoln left off, but his views were slightly different.
Rebuilding Brings Conflict 1) Some Southern states set up governments exactly like they were before the war. Others refused to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. 2) Southern states passed laws, known as black codes, which limited the freedom of former slaves. 3) Congress refused to seat representatives from the South. 4) The Radical Republicans wanted the federal government to play an active role in remaking Southern society.
The Civil Rights Act 1) Congress passed a bill promoting civil rights. They declared that all persons born in the United States were citizens. All citizens were entitled to equal rights regardless of their race. 2) Republicans were shocked when President Johnson vetoed the bill. Congress voted to override Johnson’s veto.
The Fourteenth Amendment 1) Republicans wanted equality to be protected by the Constitution so they proposed the Fourteenth Amendment. 2) Johnson refused to support the amendment and so did every former Confederate state except Tennessee. 3) From this point on Congress controlled Reconstruction because the South was trying to stop everything that needed to be done to fix the Nation. 4) Before Southern states could reenter the Union they would have to do two things: 1: They must allow African American men the right to vote. 2: They must ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
The New Southern Governments 1) Southern voters chose delegates to draft their new state constitutions. 2) Three-fourths were poor white southern farmers (scalawags). They were angry at planters for starting the “rich man’s war”, they went along with Radical Reconstruction. 3) Another one-fourth of the delegates were carpetbaggers-white Northerners. 4) African Americans made up the rest of the delegates. 5) African Americans began to serve in state legislatures and congress.
Johnson is Impeached 1) Johnson fought against many of Congress’s reform efforts during Reconstruction. 2) Congress had passed an Act which prohibited the president from firing government officials without the Senate’s approval. 3) Johnson fired his secretary of war Edwin Stanton. 4) Because of this the House of Representatives voted to impeach the president.
Freedmen’s School School set up to educate newly freed African Americans
Sharecropping System under which landowners gave poor farmers seed, tools, and land to cultivate in exchange for part of their harvest.
Ku Klux Klan Secret group that used violence to try to restore Democratic control of the South and keep African Americans powerless.
One American’s Story 1) Mill and Jule saw a fleet of Union gunboats going up the Mississippi river. 2) They got on the boats and cheered for the soldiers and the government.
Responding to Freedom 1) Many African Americans began to travel once they became free. Some went looking for their place of birth and others looked for economic opportunities. 2) Some African Americans went looking for their families and the Freemen’s Bureau helped them place advertisements in the newspapers. 3) Freedom allowed African Americans to strengthen their family ties.
Starting Schools 1) Children and adults flocked to freedmen’s schools started by the Freemen’s Bureau 2) After the war, African-American groups raised more than $1 million for education. Freedmen’s Bureau spent $5 million for education. 3) White racists killed teachers and burned freedmen’s schools in some parts of the South.
40 Acres and a Mule 1) Freed people wanted to own land 2) William T. Sherman suggested that South Carolina be split into 40- acre parcels and given to freedmen. The rumor spread that all freedmen would get 40 acres and a mule. 3) Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner proposed a plan that would have taken land from plantation owners and given to freed people. 4) There were people for it and against this plan but in the end it did not get passed by Congress.
The Contract System 1) Without their own property, many African Americans returned to work on plantations. 2) Planters still needed cotton to be picked and desperately needed workers. African Americans were able to choose the best contract offers. 3) Even the best contracts paid very low wages.
Sharecropping and Debt 1) Under the sharecropping system, a worker rented a plot of land to farm. The land owner provided the tools, seed, and housing. 2) Farmers wanted to grow crops to feed their families, but landowners needed them to grow cash crops. 3) White farmers also became sharecroppers because they had lost land in the war. 4) After the war the price of cotton went down.
The Ku Klux Klan 1) African Americans in the South also faced violent racism. Many planters and former Confederate soldiers formed a secret group called the Ku Klux Klan. 2) The Klan attacked African Americans. Often it targeted those who owned land or became prosperous. 3) Victims had little protection because the authorities ignored the violence. 4) The Klan’s terrorism helped the Democratic Part by keeping Republicans away from voting.
Fifteenth Amendment Constitutional amendment that stated that citizens could not be stopped from voting “ on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”.
Panic of 1873 Financial panic in which banks closed and the stock market crashed.
Compromise of 1877 Agreement that decided the 1876 presidential election.
Stock market Place where shares of ownership in companies are bought and sold.
Depression Time of low business activity and high unemployment.
One American’s Story 1) Robert E. Elliott made a speech in favor of a civil rights bill that would outlaw racial discrimination in public service. 2) In 1877 federal troops left the South. White Southerners took back control of the region and forced African Americans out of office.
The Election of Grant 1) The Republican party seemed stronger than ever. General Ulysses S. Grant won the presidency. 2) Grant would have had trouble winning without the freedmen’s vote.
The Fifteenth Amendment 1) Citizens could not be stopped from voting because of their race. (men only) 2) The Fifteenth Amendment did not apply to women.
Grant Fights the Klan 1) Grant asked Congress to pass a tough law against the Klan. 2) Congress passed the anti-Klan bill and thousands of Klansmen were arrested.
Scandal and Panic Weaken Republicans 1) With Grant as president, Reconstruction began to weaken because of scandals and financial panic. 2) Grant did not pick his advisers well. (cronyism) 3) Many Republicans broke away and formed a new party. 4) Panic swept the country after a few powerful banks ran out of money 5) Many Americans blamed the crisis on the Republicans because they were in power at the time. 6) Nation was losing interest in Reconstruction.
Supreme Court Reversals 1) The Supreme Court began to undo some of the changes that had been made in the South. 2) Court ruled that the federal government could not punish people who violated the civil rights of African Americans 3) Court ruled that the Fifteenth Amendment did not give everyone the right to vote, it just lists ways states cannot deny the vote.
Reconstruction Ends 1) Compromise of 1877, Hayes became president, but needed to give up certain things mainly removal of troops from the South 2) Many doubted that the South would respect black rights. 3) Democrats returned to power in the South after Reconstruction governments collapsed.
The legacy of Reconstruction 1) The nation did rebuild and reunite, but did not achieve equality for African Americans. 2) African Americans could now vote and hold public office, but many did not take part in politics. 3) civil rights became part of the U.S. Constitution, the two amendments paved way for civil rights laws in the 20 th century. 4) Reconstruction changed society.