2CHARACTERISTICS OF 19TH CENTURY CZARS AutocracyHarsh measures against opponentsSecret policePogroms violence against JewsOppression of non-Russians restrictive lawsResistance to change
3Some of the Causes… Rapid industrialization Development of industries for the production of machine made goods# of factories doubled between4th leading producer of steel by 1900
4Why build the Trans-Siberian Railroad? What are some problems you may encounter during the building of the Trans-Siberian Railroad?
5Video Reflectionend 8:50; start again 13:00-19:00When watching the video, answer the following…so write these questions in your notebook.1. Why did Russian czars feel it was necessary to build the railroad? Benefits?2. What were the major problems Alexander III faced in order to build the railroad?
6Industrialization…a cause? What is needed when a nation begins to industrialize?Land, labor, and money(capital)Problems?Low wages trade unions outlawedGap between rich and poor widenedInfluence of Karl Marx
7Workers of the World Unite! Karl Marx influenced the new class of workers“Haves” vs. the “Have-nots”Workers “dictatorship of the proletariat”Mensheviks(moderates) and Bolsheviks(radical) form Marxist groups
8Russo-Japanese WarRussia and Japan fought over control over Manchuria and KoreaRussia lost embarrassingUnrest grows at home
9EVENTS OF 1905 Bloody Sunday 200,000 workers march on czar’s winter palace wanted better working conditions and wagesTroops fire on crowd, 1,000 + killedCreation of DumaFirst parliament of RussiaCzar forced to share power; dissolved it after 10 weeks who really has the power?
10NICHOLAS II’s MISTAKES Brought Russia into WWI many defeatsCzarina Alexandra given power; she became influenced by RasputinRasputin was freaky, crazy, and corruptPeople were poor and starving; lots of unrest
11Russian Revolution – Part I (The March Revolution) March 1917: strikes expand in Petrograd; riots over bread and fuel shortages.Soldiers ordered to fire on people but turned guns on commanding officers (mutiny).FYI: At start of WWI, St. Petersburg sounded too German and was renamed Petrograd. After Lenin’s death in 1924, renamed Leningrad.
12I guess they won’t call you “Nicholas the Great!” Czar Nicholas II forced to abdicate his throne in March The end of 300 years of Romanov rule.I guess they won’t call you “Nicholas the Great!”
13CZAR'S FAMILY EXECUTED IN... NICHOLAS II ABDICATESCZAR'S FAMILY EXECUTED IN...1918
14PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Temporary GovernmentLed by:Alexander KerenskyBut the Provisional Government did not have as much power as the…
15SOVIETSFormed by social revolutionariesLocal councils in citiesConsisted of workers, peasants, and soldiers
16MISTAKES OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Biggest mistake: kept Russia in World War OneAlso, did not help workers or peasants with food and fuel shortagesLost all support!
17Bolshevik REVOLUTION Led by: Vladimir Lenin, leader of Bolshevik Party (Communists!)His slogan:“Peace, Land, and Bread”Bolshevik Red Guards took over gov’t offices; arrested Prov. Gov’t leadersBolsheviks in power November 1917
18All farmland distributed to peasants Factories controlled by workers LENIN'S FIRST MOVES...All farmland distributed to peasantsFactories controlled by workersEnd Russia’s involvement in WWI Treaty of Brest-Litovsk(costly)Gained many opponents, leading to Russian Civil War
19RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR 1918-1920 WINNERS! LOSERS! RED ARMY Bolsheviks (Communists!)Led by…Leon TrotskyWHITE ARMYOpponents of Bolsheviks in Russia; western nations like the USA15 million dead!WINNERS!LOSERS!
20RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR Red Army crushes all opposition to Bolshevik ruleRussian economy destroyed: no trade or industrial production
21BOLSHEVIKS BECOME KNOWN AS… THE COMMUNIST PARTY(still led by Lenin)
22THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY 1921 To help Russia recover from the war Lenin allowed for a little bit of capitalismPeasants could sell surplus (extra) crops for profitIndividuals could buy and sell goods for profitSome small factories, farms, and businesses allowed
23NEW COUNTRY Lenin organized Russia into self-governing republics Central Government controlled them!1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)Capital: MoscowLenin had created a “Dictatorship of the Communist Party”This becomes known as Leninism
24Lenin is #35 on the Biography of the Millennium list. Lenin dies in 1924.By 1928, country’s factories and farms recovered and returned to prewar levels of production.Lenin is #35 on the Biography of the Millennium list.Lenin's Tomb, in Red Square in Moscow, serves as the current resting place of Vladimir Lenin. His embalmed body has been on public display there since shortly after his death (with rare exceptions in wartime).