Presentation on theme: "RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. CHARACTERISTICS OF 19 TH CENTURY CZARS Autocracy Harsh measures against opponents Secret police Pogroms violence against Jews Oppression."— Presentation transcript:
CHARACTERISTICS OF 19 TH CENTURY CZARS Autocracy Harsh measures against opponents Secret police Pogroms violence against Jews Oppression of non-Russians restrictive laws Resistance to change
Some of the Causes… Rapid industrialization –Development of industries for the production of machine made goods –# of factories doubled between –4 th leading producer of steel by 1900
Why build the Trans-Siberian Railroad? What are some problems you may encounter during the building of the Trans- Siberian Railroad?
Video Reflection _kyxQ end 8:50; start again 13:00-19:00http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hH6Xpr _kyxQ When watching the video, answer the following…so write these questions in your notebook. 1. Why did Russian czars feel it was necessary to build the railroad? Benefits? 2. What were the major problems Alexander III faced in order to build the railroad?
Industrialization…a cause? What is needed when a nation begins to industrialize? Land, labor, and money(capital) Problems? –Low wages trade unions outlawed –Gap between rich and poor widened –Influence of Karl Marx
Workers of the World Unite! Karl Marx influenced the new class of workers “Haves” vs. the “Have-nots” Workers “dictatorship of the proletariat” Mensheviks(moderates) and Bolsheviks(radical) form Marxist groups
Russo-Japanese War Russia and Japan fought over control over Manchuria and Korea Russia lost embarrassing Unrest grows at home
EVENTS OF 1905 Bloody Sunday 200,000 workers march on czar’s winter palace wanted better working conditions and wages Troops fire on crowd, 1,000 + killed Creation of Duma First parliament of Russia Czar forced to share power; dissolved it after 10 weeks who really has the power?
NICHOLAS II’s MISTAKES Brought Russia into WWI many defeats Czarina Alexandra given power; she became influenced by Rasputin Rasputin was freaky, crazy, and corrupt People were poor and starving; lots of unrest
Russian Revolution – Part I (The March Revolution) March 1917: strikes expand in Petrograd; riots over bread and fuel shortages. Soldiers ordered to fire on people but turned guns on commanding officers (mutiny). FYI: At start of WWI, St. Petersburg sounded too German and was renamed Petrograd. After Lenin’s death in 1924, renamed Leningrad.
Czar Nicholas II forced to abdicate his throne in March The end of 300 years of Romanov rule. I guess they won’t call you “Nicholas the Great!”
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Temporary Government Led by: Alexander Kerensky But the Provisional Government did not have as much power as the…
Formed by social revolutionaries Local councils in cities Consisted of workers, peasants, and soldiers
MISTAKES OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Biggest mistake: kept Russia in World War One Also, did not help workers or peasants with food and fuel shortages Lost all support!
Bolshevik REVOLUTION Led by: Vladimir Lenin, leader of Bolshevik Party (Communists!) His slogan: “Peace, Land, and Bread” Bolshevik Red Guards took over gov’t offices; arrested Prov. Gov’t leaders Bolsheviks in power November 1917
All farmland distributed to peasants Factories controlled by workers End Russia’s involvement in WWI Treaty of Brest- Litovsk(costly) Gained many opponents, leading to Russian Civil War
RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR RED ARMY Bolsheviks (Communists!) Led by…Leon Trotsky WHITE ARMY Opponents of Bolsheviks in Russia; western nations like the USA
RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR Red Army crushes all opposition to Bolshevik rule Russian economy destroyed: no trade or industrial production
BOLSHEVIKS BECOME KNOWN AS… THE COMMUNIST PARTY (still led by Lenin)
THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY 1921 To help Russia recover from the war Lenin allowed for a little bit of capitalism Peasants could sell surplus (extra) crops for profit Individuals could buy and sell goods for profit Some small factories, farms, and businesses allowed
NEW COUNTRY Lenin organized Russia into self-governing republics Central Government controlled them! 1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Capital: Moscow Lenin had created a “Dictatorship of the Communist Party” This becomes known as Leninism
Lenin dies in By 1928, country’s factories and farms recovered and returned to prewar levels of production. Lenin is #35 on the Biography of the Millennium list. Lenin's Tomb, in Red Square in Moscow, serves as the current resting place of Vladimir Lenin. His embalmed body has been on public display there since shortly after his death (with rare exceptions in wartime).