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Chapter 30 Sections 1 & 2 Revolution in Russia Starts on Page 867.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 30 Sections 1 & 2 Revolution in Russia Starts on Page 867."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 30 Sections 1 & 2 Revolution in Russia Starts on Page 867

2 Section 1 Revolutions in Russia Czars Resist Change Alexander III ( ), Nicholas II ( ) Censorship Secret Police Suppression of non-Russian nationalities Russia Industrializes Number of factories double between In the 1890s, government ministers seek foreign investment for growth. By 1900, Russia is the 4 th largest steel producer Trans-Siberian Railway: world’s largest continuous rail line

3 Section 1 Revolutions in Russia The Growth of the Revolutionary Movement Rapid industrialization stirred up discontent just as it had in other European nations Views of Karl Marx catch on Believed that industrial working class would overthrow the Czar, and establish a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Proletariat: the working class Russian Marxists split Mensheviks: Moderates Bolsheviks: Radicals, led by Vladimir Lenin Lenin forced to leave Russia to avoid arrest.

4 Section 1 Revolutions in Russia Crises at Home and Abroad The Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Japanese and Russians competing for Korea and Manchuria. Russia looses Bloody Sunday: the Revolution of ,000 workers protest at Czars palace, troops open fire nation wide strikes. Czar sets up a weak legislature called the Duma World War I: The Final Blow Czar Nicholas II went to the front Wife, Czarina Alexandra, runs government, with help of the mysterious holy man, Rasputin

5 Section 1 Revolutions in Russia The March Revolution, 1917 Workers riot against government, Czar abdicates. Duma sets up the “provisional government” (means temporary government) Lenin Returns to Russia, with help from the Germans The Bolshevik Revolution Lenin’s slogan: “Peace, Land and Bread!” Provisional government overthrown by Bolshevik supporters in November. Bolsheviks take power: land to be redistributed, truce signed with Germany. Civil War in Russia, The Red Army (Bolsheviks) The White Army (Czarists, Democrats, and Mensheviks)

6 Section 1 Revolutions in Russia Lenin Restores Order New Economic Policy, 1921 Small-scale capitalism Banks, communication, and major industries remain government controlled Political Reforms Organizes the country as a series of self-governing republics under the Central Government Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Bolshevik Party becomes the Communist Party Stalin becomes Dictator Joseph Stalin, general secretary of the Communist Party Lenin Dies in 1924 Leon Trotsky, Stalin’s rival, is exiled to Mexico Stalin in total control by 1928.

7 Section 2 Totalitarianism: Stalinist Russia A Government of Total Control Totalitarianism: a government that takes total, centralized control over every aspect of public and private life. Police State: use of terror and violence, police used to enforce government’s policies Indoctrination: instruction in the government’s beliefs to mold people’s minds. (Education) Propaganda and Censorship: total control of all mass-media to spread the government’s message Religious or Ethnic Persecution: “enemies of the state”, someone to blame.

8 Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State Police State: monitoring telephone lines, reading mail, spying on citicents Great Purge, , 8-13 million killed Russian Propaganda and Censorship Education and Indoctrination Schools taught the virtues of the Communist Party Government youth groups trained children to be good communists Religious Persecution: Atheism, attacked the Russian Orthodox Church Stalin Seizes Control of the Economy Command Economy: government made all economic decisions Industry: the Five-Year Plans Focus on steel, coal, oil Led to shortages of consumer goods (clothes, shoes, food) Agriculture: collective farms Private farms seized by government, worked by hundreds of families Section 2 Totalitarianism: Stalinist Russia

9 Stalin Seizes Control of the Economy Command Economy: government made all economic decisions Industry: the Five-Year Plans Focus on steel, coal, oil Led to shortages of consumer goods (clothes, shoes, food) Agriculture: collective farms Private farms seized by government, worked by hundreds of families Section 2 Totalitarianism: Stalinist Russia

10 Sections 1 & 2 Review Who were the last Czars? Who were the Mensheviks? Bolsheviks? What revolutions occurred in 1917? Who took over Russia in 1917? Who was their leader? Who turned Russia into a totalitarian state? What is Totalitarianism? What is a command economy? What are collective farms?


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