Presentation on theme: "ALLUNY Annual Meeting October 1, 2010 Matt Morrison, Cornell Law School Library."— Presentation transcript:
ALLUNY Annual Meeting October 1, 2010 Matt Morrison, Cornell Law School Library
Animal Law Defined Animal Categories and Areas of Law Legal History Developments Sources
The National Anti-Vivisection Society defines animal law as: “any legal issue that involves animals.” They further state, “it is a combination of statutory and case law in which the nature of non-human animals, whether legal, social or biological, is an important factor.”
Agricultural— Livestock Companion—Pets Wildlife—Roaming the environment Entertainment animals Laboratory animals
With Examples L IVESTOCK : Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Chickens, etc C OMPANION : Dogs, Cats, Horses, Gerbils, etc W ILDLIFE : Lions, and Tigers, and Bears (oh my..)
EntertainmentLaboratory Rodeo Racing Zoos and Exhibitions Circuses Staged Fights Hunting Research, Testing, Experimentation Cosmetics, Medicine Toxicity testing, Dissection
Animal Law intersects with: ◦ Torts ◦ Property/Estates and Trusts ◦ Commercial Law ◦ Family Law ◦ Criminal Law ◦ Environmental Law ◦ Sports & Entertainment Law ◦ Constitutional Law
Torts Property/Estates and Trusts Dog bites Nuisance and property damage Vet malpractice Ownership and transfer of ownership Patents Pet trusts
Commercial LawFamily Law Contract disputes ◦ Buyers/Sellers ◦ Performance Animals Dealings with vets, kennels, etc (bailment) Agriculture and food production Product testing Pet custody battles Pets involved in pre- nups and divorce settlements
Criminal LawEnvironmental Law Anti-cruelty statutes ◦ Abuse, dog fighting, vivisection Protective orders Defense of animal advocates Endangered species protection Protection of habitat— clean water Public lands management (wild horses, etc)
Sports & Entertainment Law Constitutional Law Racing Animal Welfare— circuses and exhibitions Hunting—regulation of methods, species hunted, places where hunting occurs. First Amendment protection of animal rights activists Freedom of Religion— animal sacrifice, vegan diets of prisoners or workers. Fourth Amendment issues when police shoot or confiscate pets.
Deep Roots Nuisance—the hog farm Strict Liability: for trespass by livestock, esp onto crop fields Livestock Auctions and Sales Slaughter Regulation: Slaughtering was done just off Wall St in NYC, but then ordered outside of city in 1676!
Early laws addressed cruelty First recorded prohibition of cruelty was in 1641 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony ◦ Body of Liberties: “No man shall exercise any tirranny or crueltie towards any bruite creature…” ◦ Evolved from old English malicious mischief laws, or perhaps public nuisance law 1800 saw attempts in England to ban bull- baiting In 1822, the Ill Treatment of Horses and Cattle Bill was approved in England.
Hunting and Property: Pierson v Post ◦ Famous 1805 property case from NY in which rights to a hunted fox were in dispute. Court ruled that giving chase was insufficient to bestow right. But dissent disagreed saying hunters should be encouraged to rid countryside of “noxious beast[s]” In late 1800’s Supreme Court upheld CT law regulating transport of game birds against Commerce Clause challenge. In 1900, Congress passed Lacey Act prohibiting interstate trafficking in birds killed/captured in violation of state law. Federal-State Tension
Hunting: English laws date to the 1300s and were geared toward maintaining privilege and prevention of depletion American hunting law came later, although Virginia est’d a deer season in 1646. Circuses/exhibitions were largely unregulated until the Animal Welfare Act of 1970. Rodeos and livestock are excluded from the AWA. Bull-baiting was banned in England in 1822. Racing: exempt from the AWA; wagering regulated starting in 1870s.
Began in 1870s England A physiologist’s lab assistant was disturbed by what he saw and publicized the conditions. Royal Commission on Vivisection was established with Queen’s backing. Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 was passed regulating vivisection and licensing labs. Americans took note, states began regulating.
Where we came from… Animals have been, and still are, regarded as property. This notion intertwined with agrarian societies to benefit humans, and the law reflected this. Bolstered by philosophy, tradition, and pragmatism: ◦ “Animals have no souls or minds” ◦ “We’ve always used them” ◦ “And using them works”
Views began to change… Property rights shaped both the legal context of animals and human attitudes. But, English jurist Jeremy Bentham was a catalyst for change in the 19 th century. He wrote: “The question is not, Can they reason? Can they talk? But can they suffer?”
The Ill Treatment of Horses and Cattle Bill of 1822 The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 In 1824, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded In 1840, Queen Victoria allowed the SPCA to use the prefix “Royal.”
Some changes In the 1800s, Britain still had significant intellectual influence in the States. New York’s original anti-cruelty statute was in 1828. In 1866, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded.
The National Anti-Vivisection Society states it this way: ◦ “the underlying philosophy of the law is this: that animals merit the protection of the law only if and to the extent that such protection will not interfere with the interests of humans, which are considered to have more importance than the interests of animals.” Humans: Unconditional protection Animals: Conditional protection based on human needs and desires
The 20 th century saw significant increase in anti-cruelty and animal welfare laws at the state and federal level. There are significant federal laws aimed at wildlife and the regulation of slaughter and the movement of animals in interstate commerce. While some underlying ideas have changed since 1800, many have not.
Law Schools: ◦ Increasing number of animal law courses and seminars ◦ Increasing animal law clinics: Duke has a good one Practitioners: ◦ More state and local bars have animal law sections ◦ More attorneys are working on animal cases
ASPCA ASPCA National Anti-Vivisection Society National Anti-Vivisection Society Animal Legal Defense Fund Animal Legal Defense Fund American Humane Association American Humane Association Animal Welfare Institute Animal Welfare Institute Humane Society of the United States—their site provides solid coverage of federal and state statutes. Humane Society of the United Statesfederal state World Wildlife Fund World Wildlife Fund
Animallaw.com Animallaw.com Animal Blawg Animal Blawg Animal Rights: The Abolitionist Approach Animal Rights: The Abolitionist Approach Animal Legal and Historical Web Center (Michigan State) Animal Legal and Historical Web Center Animal Ethics Blog Animal Ethics Blog Center for Wildlife Law (UNM) Center for Wildlife Law Center for Animal Law Studies (Lewis & Clark) Center for Animal Law Studies Pet-Abuse.com Pet-Abuse.com
Animals and the Law: A Sourcebook, by Jordan Curnutt Animals and the Law: A Sourcebook Animal Law: Cases and Materials, 4 th ed., by Bruce A. Wagman, et al. Animal Law: Welfare, Interests, and Rights, by David Favre Animal Law: Welfare, Interests, and Rights People, Property, or Pets?, by Marc D. Hauser, et al. People, Property, or Pets? A NIMAL L AW R EVIEW (Lewis and Clark) A NIMAL L AW R EVIEW J OURNAL FOR C RITICAL A NIMAL S TUDIES J OURNAL FOR C RITICAL A NIMAL S TUDIES J OURNAL OF A NIMAL L AW (Mich. St.) J OURNAL OF A NIMAL L AW J OURNAL OF A NIMAL L AW AND E THICS (Penn) J OURNAL OF A NIMAL L AW AND E THICS S TANFORD J OURNAL OF A NIMAL L AW AND P OLICY S TANFORD J OURNAL OF A NIMAL L AW AND P OLICY