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Animal Rights & Welfare

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Rights & Welfare"— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Rights & Welfare
Chapter 4

2 Terms Animal Rights Animal Welfare Confinement Systems
The position that animals should not be exploited Animal Welfare The position that animals should be treated humanely Confinement Systems Animals are confined to cages or pens in partially enclosed or totally enclosed buildings so that production improves through closer control of the environment

3 Terms Ecoterrorism Factory Farming Humanize
Terrorism or crimes committed under the disguise of saving nature Factory Farming Practice of keeping chickens in cages and veal calves in small crates Humanize To believe that animals have the same rights as humans and to treat them as humans

4 Terms Intensive Operations Specieism Unethical
Farming operations in which the farmer or manager tries to increase output through better breeding, feeding and management Specieism Belief that any use of animals by humans reflects a bias or that humans are superior to animals Unethical A belief that something is going against one’s moral principles and values

5 Terms Vivisection Research consisting of surgical operations and experiments to study the structure and function of organs.

6 Current Topics In Animal Rights & Welfare
Animals as Property Scientific testing Animal Agriculture Caged Animals Entertainment Animals Veganism Factory Farming Fish & Fishing Vivisection Hunting Use of furs

7 Check It Out! Animal rights vs Animal welfare has a long history
Pgs 32-34

8 1641 First laws to protect farm animals “The Body of Liberties”
Massachusetts bay colony

9 1828 First anticruelty lab passed by New York
“Each person who shall maliciously kill, main, or wound any horse, ox, or other cattle, or sheep, belonging to another, or shall maliciously and cruelly beat or torture such animal whether belonging to himself or another, shall upon conviction, be adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor.”

10 1866 American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA)
Formed for welfare of disabled horses America’s first humane society Founded by Henry Bergh

11 1867 “An Act for the more effectual prevention of cruelty to animals.”
Ten sections 41 states and DC have laws based on it

12 1906 Animal Transportation Act
Protect animals traveling long distances by rail 95% of animals today are transported by truck Law was never amended to include them

13 1958 Humane Slaughter Act Amended in 1970s to include handling prior to slaughter

14 1964 Ruth Harrison Focused on the use of antibiotics & hormones
Animal Machines: The New Factory Farming Industry Focused on the use of antibiotics & hormones Investigation led to laws concerning treatment: Chickens Turkeys Pigs Cattle Sheep Rabbits

15 1966 Public Law 89-544 (AWA) Laboratory Animal Welfare Act
Regulated dealers who handled research: Dogs Cats Hamsters Guinea Pigs Rabbits Primates First amendment authorized regulation of other warm bloods

16 1970 Horse Protection Act Regulates show business
Specific to gait alteration

17 1970s It all began… Modern Animal Rights Movement Urban vegetarians
Draws activists from philosophy, theology, and human rights

18 1970s Peter Singer Founder of modern animal rights movement
Animal Liberation Founder of modern animal rights movement Book condemned use of animals in food and research

19 1976 Amendment to AWA prohibited animal fighting
Regulated commercial transport

20 1985 Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act
Issued additional standards for research animals Standards for dog exercise Physical environment standards Institutional Animal Care & Use Committees Minimal pain and distress Anesthetics, analgesics & tranquilizer use Consider alternative to painful procedures

21 1986 Animal Liberation Front $$$$$ of damage at Oregon State
Set fires at University of California-Davis Independence day attack at Texas Tech

22 1989 Farm Animal and Research Facilities Protection Act
Applied to premise where animals are kept for: Food Ag Research Testing Education Federal crime to disrupt activities $10,000 fine Passed in August 1992

23 1990 “March for the Animals” 15-24,000 people

24 1990 Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act
Pet protection provisions Covers 4 institution categories Dogs & Cat breeders Zoos Circuses Research Facilities

25 1992 Animal Enterprise Protection Act Protects: Zoos Aquariums
Circuses Rodeos Fairs Auctions Packing Plants Commercial & Academic Enterprises

26 1997 Ecoterrorism 10,000 mink released from a fur ranch
½ the animals died in fighting each other 1,300 of the animals recaptured would die later

27 Do Animals Have Rights? Animal Welfare Animal Rights
Same as humans Specieism Feel pain Humans are animals Animal Welfare Humanely without cruelty Should receive proper care Can be used in research when alternatives are unavailable

28 Should animals be used for food?
Animal Rights Inhumane Meat is unhealthy Constant housing Physiological and behavioral problem Large corporations who care about profits Animal Welfare Best interest of farmers to care for animals Intensive operations Confinement systems Protection from the elements 97% of farms are family owned

29 Should animals be used in experiments?
Animal Rights Unethical Unnecessary Exaggerated value Misleading tests could danger human health Pound seizures, Draize Testing, * Classical LD50 6 million animals used in experimentation Animal Welfare Biomedical research limited or stopped Organ transplants # of animals used is declining 90% are rats/mice Bovine Corneal Opacity Test Plastic models Tissue Culture

30 Does the type of animal used matter?
Monkeys vs Mice? Dogs vs Rats? Why? Does it matter what test is being conducted?


32 Should hunting and trapping be allowed?
Animal Rights Inhumane Unnatural “Joy of killing” Stop use of dogs “Regulations = providing animals to hunt” Hunting food is not necessary Animal Welfare Prime source of $$ for preserving wildlife Tradition Population control Focus public attn on wildlife Initiates of wildlife laws Harvest only surplus animals

33 Some Odds and Ends USDA implements regulation of most animal welfare laws Charles Stenholm & Senator Howell Heflin cosponsored the Animal Enterprise Protection Act of 1992 Rabbits are used in the Draize Eye Test because they don’t have tear ducts Approximately 1 million animals are used in ed facilities for dissection annually

34 Odds and Ends The LD50 test determines the dose required to kill 50% of a test population Primates make up about ½ of 1% of experiment animals Crushed monkey spinal cords were necessary to make the polio vaccine

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