Presentation on theme: "Stalin’s Domestic Policies. Stalin’s Domestic policies: what did they try to achieve? Control over education Control over leisure Cult of the Personality."— Presentation transcript:
Stalin’s Domestic policies: what did they try to achieve? Control over education Control over leisure Cult of the Personality
Education Purpose –S–Support –I–Indoctrination –P–Propaganda –I–Increase in political consciousness –V–Vocational training –C–Careers –R–Raise literacy levels –T–Training for military or other careers
Education Primary education was compulsory for all In 1930 it was for 4 years and later increased to 7 years. Adults encouraged to take classes to improve literacy. Traditional education was emphasized with emphasis on traditional subjects and of course Marxism-Leninism Universities with specialized departments were set up Students encouraged to study specialist courses to prepare them to serve the needs of the Five year Plans Tests and examinations reintroduced Uniforms reintroduced Eventually higher education was fee paying and no longer free
Education Newspapers available at low prices Newspapers provided to factory workers Publishers printed the Russian classis and foreign literature at low prices thus making books accessible to most people Youth groups such as Young Pioneers and Komosomols compulsory for students and future members of the party were drawn from these groups. Creation of stereotypical role models
Results 96% literacy for males in USSR by 1939 82% literacy for females in 1939 Changes in the form and structure of schools Emphasis on narrow specialist courses Preferences to proletarian background was withdrawn
Control of the Arts and Culture Media –Broadcasts –Films –Publications
Radio Set up in every village, every hamlet across the country to hear the voice of Stalin “The Soviet Radio carries to the masses the inspired words of Bolshevik truth, aids the people in tis struggle for the full victory of Communism in our country, summons them to heroic deeds in the name of the further strengthening of the power of the economic and cultural prosperity of the USSR”
What was Marxist proletarian Culture? Not defined : except that it was supposed to be new Thus in the early days a tendency to develop abstract art and music Under Stalin this was changed to represent his propaganda and develop the ‘cult of the personality’ The arts eventually came to achieve one thing: glorify the Soviet state.
Patriotic themes End of experimentation that had been so much a part of the Proletkult References to historical past to create the myth of the Soviet state From 1930’s the tone was intensely patriotic
Socialist realism It was the new approved style for books,creative art and media. The aim was to glorify the worker, the Stakhanovite, the Kolhozes: in short to show what it should be rather what it really was
RAPP and Union of Russian Writers Membership to RAPP was compulsory for writers Censorship of works by RAPP Eventually RAPP disbanded because it was too avant garde Maxim Gorky came back to head RUW Writers, composers artists were supposed to toe the ideological line but what was it?
Rebuilding Projects Moscow given a face lift Tall gigantic buildings became the norm an expression of the gigantomania that was so characteristic of Stalin’s economic policies Buildings : tall and soaring Decorated with stained glass and huge gigantic murals and themes that reflected Soviet socialist realism Metro, the Hermitage, Sports stadia all a part of the grand scheme
Impact on families and family life? Under Stalin there was a reversal of many of the policies that had been formulated under Lenin Why? –Part of the change was necessary because of the huge disruptions caused by migration to cities or deportations of families to labour camps –In some cases families left in the care of relatives or brought up on Collective farms
Family life Life in the cities was harsh Livng conditions claustrophobic Housing shortage Sharing of facilities Enormous strain on family life Abandonment of families was common Rise of street gangs and juvenile crime a serious problem Hooliganism Falling birth rate
Solutions Death penalty for juvenile delinquents over the age of 12 Juvenile delinquents to be held under state custody and parents to pay for upkeep Abortion illegal and doctors punished Divorce very difficult Homosexuality banned Rewards to mothers for having numerous children Childcare in factories to allow women to work