Presentation on theme: "Stalin’s Russia and Totalitarianism By Mrs. Gurzler."— Presentation transcript:
Stalin’s Russia and Totalitarianism By Mrs. Gurzler
Question of the Day How do leaders maintain their power? While we learn about Stalin, ask yourself how he is able to keep himself in power, even though many did not like him.
Totalitarianism Definition: Government takes TOTAL, CENTRALIZED state control over every aspect of public and private life. Need a dynamic leader No democratic values – freedom, reason, human dignity, and the worth of the individual.
Methods of Control and Persuasion 1. Police Terror 2. Indoctrination 3. Propaganda and Censorship 4. Religious or Ethnic Persecution
Police Terror Spy and intimidate citizens Sometimes used brutal force and murder to enforce government policies
How Stalin Used Police Terror Secret Police – used tanks and armored cars to stop riots Monitored telephone lines, read mail, and planted informers. Children told on parents if they were disloyal. Great Purge – campaign of terror that eliminated anyone who threatened his power. Responsible for 8 to 13 million deaths.
Education and Indoctrination Indoctrination – instruction in government beliefs to mold people’s minds. Education is usually controlled by government and glorified the leader. Need loyalty and support from citizens. Starts with youth
Stalin’s Education School children learned virtues of Communist Party College students and professors could not question their ideals Party leaders educated workers and peasants on ideals State-supported youth groups trained future party leaders
Propaganda and Censorship Propaganda – biased and incomplete information used to sway people to certain beliefs or actions Control of mass media allowed this to happen Citizens were surrounded by false information If you thought this was incorrect, you were committed with treason and punished
Russian Propaganda and Censorship Government controlled all sources of information - newspapers, radio, etc. No individual creativity that did not confirm with views of the state Glorified Stalin and government Arts were used for propaganda
Religious or Ethnic Persecution Create “enemies of the state” to blame for things that went wrong. Subject to campaigns of terror and violence Might be forced to live in certain areas or subjected to rules that apply only to them
Russia’s Religious Persecution Replaced religion with communist ideals Spread propaganda attacking religion “Museums of atheism” – showed religion was superstition. Russian Orthodox Church = main target of persecution Police destroyed churches and leaders were sent to labor camps or killed
Stalin’s Economy COMMAND ECONOMY – Government makes all economic decisions.
Industrial Revolution Five Year Plans – set impossibly high quotas to increase output of steel, oil, coal, and electricity What were the problems? –Limited production of consumer goods –Created shortages in housing, food, clothing VERY SUCCESSFUL and made a second plan
Agricultural Revolution USSR seized 25 MILLION privately owned farms Collective Farms – combined these farms into large government owned farms that produced food for the state Peasants killed livestock and destroyed crops in protests 5 to 10 million peasants died Still grew twice as much wheat as before
Women’s Rights Bolshevik Revolution made men and women equal State provided child care for working mothers Women worked in construction and factories and had careers in engineering, science, and medicine Men still had better paying jobs Women still had to do housework and childcare Motherhood = Patriotic duty to provide state with loyal citizens