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Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age

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1 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age
Chapter 5 section 3 Page 120

2 What Do You Remember? Who rules in a monarchy political structure?
Kings What was the fearsome formation that became a powerful fighting force in Greece called? Phalanx What kind of political structure did Athens have? Direct democracy Who fought in the Persian Wars? Greece and Persian Empire Who won the Persian wars? Greece What was the Delian League? An alliance of 140 Greek cities

3 During Athens's golden age, drama, sculpture, poetry, architecture and science reach new heights
For 50 years ( B.C.) Athens experienced growth in intellectual and artistic learning

4 Pericles’ Three Goals for Athens
Wise statesmen, Pericles led Athens during its golden age Popular politician, respectful general, inspiring speaker- led for 32 years, known as Age of Pericles Had 3 goals for Athens: 1) strengthen Athenian democracy 2) to hold and strengthen the empire 3) glorify Athens

5 #1 Strengthen Democracy
To become a stronger democracy, Pericles increased number of paid public officials Before, only wealthy people could afford to be public officials, not paid positions Now even poor people could serve More citizens became involved in government than any other city-state, but limited to citizens Direct democracy- citizens rule directly, not through representatives, important legacy to Pericles

6 #2 Hold and Strengthen the Empire
Pericles used money from the Delian League to build Athens’ 200 ship navy into strongest in the Mediterranean Strong navy helped strengthen the safety of the empire Prosperity depended on gaining access to surrounding water ways and overseas trade for grain and other materials

7 #3 Glorify Athens Pericles also used money from Delian League (without approval) to pay for: 1) the building of the Parthenon- took 15 years for a group of artisans to create 2) buy gold, silver and marble


9 Greek Styles in Art Parthenon was built to honor Athena and contained examples of Greek art setting standards for generations to come A giant statue of Athena (38 ft tall) stood in the Parthenon- sculpture was created by Phidias making it from gold and ivory Greek sculptors aimed to create figures that were strong, graceful, and perfectly formed, showing no facial expressions Values of order, balance and proportion became the standard of what is called classical art


11 Greek Drama Greeks invented drama and built first theaters
Theatrical productions were tributes to pride and Gods Actors used colorful costumes and masks to add drama Wealthy paid for productions as a civic duty 2 kinds of drama- tragedy and comedy


13 Tragedy Drama Serious drama about love, hate, war or betrayal
3 notable dramatists wrote tragedies: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides

14 Comedy Drama Comedies contained scenes with crude humor and made fun of a subject like politics, customs, etc. The fact that Athenians could listen to criticism of themselves showed freedom of public discussion that existed in democratic Athens

15 BUT! Tension is growing between Sparta and Athens, especially as Athens grows into strong naval empire Instead of avoiding conflict, leaders encourage war UH OH....


17 Sparta and Athens Go to War
Sparta declares war on Athens in 431 B.C. Peloponnesian War begins Athens had strongest sea power in Greece Sparta had advantage on land because it was located inland; not easy to attack from sea

18 Pericles’ strategy was to avoid land battles with Sparta and wait for opportunity to strike Sparta’s allies from sea Sparta invades Athenian territory and burns local food supply Pericles brings residents inside safety of city walls, city was safe as long as ships could sail into port with food from allies and other foreign states

19 Some problems Athens has 2 major problems:
1) a plague spreads and kills 1/3 to 2/3 of Athens’ population- including Pericles! 2) Athenian assembly sent a huge fleet carrying 27,000 soldiers to destroy the polis of Syracuse- Sparta’s wealthiest ally. The fleet was defeated and almost everyone was killed and only a few came home

20 Athens Surrenders Athens fended off Spartan attacks for nine more years and surrender in 404 B.C. After 27 years of war, Athens had lost its empire, and confidence in democratic government failed due to corrupt politicians

21 Philosophers During time of questioning and uncertainty, great thinkers determined to seek the truth evolve Philosophers- lovers of wisdom Based philosophy on 2 assumptions: 1) universe is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute and unchanging laws 2) people can understand these laws through logic and reason One group, the Sophists, questioned Greek gods, and was deemed radical and dangerous to Athenians

22 Socrates Strong critic of sophists
Believed absolute standards did exist for truth and justice Once said “The unexamined life is not worth living” Majority of Athenians didn’t understand this old man or his ideas 399 B.C. brought to trial at 70 yrs old for “corrupting the youth of Athens”, condemned to death and died after drinking a slow acting poison

23 Painting- the Death of Socrates

24 The Trial of Socrates

25 Plato Student of Socrates, was 28 when Socrates died
Wrote The Republic stating his vision of a perfectly governed society All citizens fall into 3 groups: 1)farmers and artisans 2) warriors 3) ruling class Person with greatest intellect from ruling class would be king His only rivals in importance were his teacher, Socrates and Aristotle, his student

26 Aristotle Questioned nature of the world and of human belief
Work provides basis of the scientific method used today One of his most famous pupils was Alexander, son of King Philip of Macedonia Began tutoring Alexander when he was 13 years old, and stopped 7 years later when Alexander became ruler of Macedonia

27 Assignments: In 8 sentences or less, paraphrase the lesson and notes from today's lecture. Include information from the Delian League, Drama, Peloponnesian War, and Philosophers Describe what Socrates means when he says, “the unexamined life is not worth living”. Do NOT copy your neighbor’s answer- this needs to be YOUR interpretation Should use at least 20 words

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