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Ancient Greece Unit 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age

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1 Ancient Greece Unit 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age
World History Core

2 Cultural Interaction Democratic principles and classical culture flourished during Greece’s golden age.

3 Why is it important today?!?!?
At its height, Greece set lasting standards in art, politics, literature, and philosophy that are still influential today.

4 Terms: Be able to define these by the end of this PowerPoint 
Direct Democracy Classical Art Tragedy Comedy Peloponnesian War Philosopher Socrates Plato Aristotle

5 Setting the Stage……. For 50 years ( BC) Athens grew intellectually and artistically = Golden Age of Athens Achievements in: Drama Sculpture Poetry Philosophy Architecture Science

6 Pericles’ Plan for Athens
leader of Athens through Golden Age BC, aka Age of Pericles 3 GOALS (1) strengthen democracy (2) hold and strengthen empire (3) glorify Athens

7 Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of government
Athenian Democracy US Democracy Both Citizens: Born in US or completed citizenship process Representatives elected to propose and vote on laws Elected President Executive branch made up of elected and appointed officials Juries composed of 12 jurors Defendants and plaintiffs have attorneys; on appeals process Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of government Legislative branch passes laws Executive branch carries out laws Judicial branch conducts trial with paid jurors Citizens: male, 18 years old, born of citizen parents Laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Leader chosen by lot Executive branch composed of a council of 500 men Juries varied in size No attorneys; no appeals, one-day trials

8 GOAL 1: Strengthen Democracy
Increased # of paid public officials Having paid officials meant even poor could serve if elected or chosen by lot Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

9 Important Question?????? How accurate do you think Pericles’ statement that Athenian democracy was in the hands of the “whole people”?

10 Goal 2: Hold and Strengthen Empire
Delian League formed after Persian War. Athens took over leadership = dominated all city-states in it Used $$$ from League to build up Athenian Navy Athens needed trade (waterways) to obtain grain and raw materials to support the city-state Athens military strength=Pericles treated members of league as part of an empire Peloponnesus city-states resisted (Ex. Sparta)

11 Goal 3: Glorify Athens Used $$$ from League to make Athens beautiful
Convinced Assembly to buy gold, ivory, and marble with funds More $$$ was also needed to contract artist, architects, and workers

12 Glorious Art and Architecture
Goal: Greatest Greek artists/architects to glorify Athens PARTHENON = center of his plans

13 Architecture and Sculpture: Parthenon
Parthenon (temple) 23,000 sq foot building in tradition Greek design Built to honor Athena (Goddess of wisdom and protector of Athens) Statue of Athena inside 30 ft tall

14 Architecture and Sculpture: Sculptors
Graceful, strong, and perfect (ideal beauty) Faces only show serenity (no other emotion)

15 Architecture and Sculptures: Classical Art
Classical Art: ancient Greece ideal, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized

16 Drama and History Greeks invented drama as an art form and built the 1st theaters Civic Pride and Honor to Gods Wealthy put on productions Plays showed leadership, justice, and duties owed to Gods

17 Tragedy Serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal
Tragic hero: important figure and gifted with extraordinary ability Tragic flaw: hero’s downfall Sophocles: wrote 100 plays, Oedipus the King Euripides: Medea

18 Comedy Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor
Made fun of politics and respected people Satire: Aristophanes: Lysistrata in which women of Athens try to force their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War

19 History Recap: Dorian Age, no written records…had works of Homer, but not considered accurate Herodotus: a Greek, living in Athens, pioneered accurate reporting Book on Persian War = 1st history book Thucydides: believed certain events and political situations recur over time = important to write events down

20 Important Question????? Do you think that Thucydides was right in his assertion that history sometimes repeats itself??? YES OR NO…..

21 Athenians and Spartans Go to WAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Athens = power, prestige, and power = other city-states hostility SPARTA!!! Sparta declared war in 431 BC

22 Important Question????? What might have been Pericles’ goals in the Peloponnesian War?

23 Peloponnesian War Athens = Navy Sparta = Army
Pericles’ Strategy: avoid land battles and wait for a sea opportunity Sparta marched into Athens territory Pericles had no other choice but to bring people into city walls City safe from hunger as long as ships could come into ports 2nd year of war PLAGUE outbreak in Athens, killing 1/3rd of population and PERICLES!!! Athens still continued to fight for several years 421 BC signed a truce (worn out by war)

24 Important Question????? Why might the plague that struck Athens in the second year of the war have been so devastating???

25 Sparta Gains VICTORY! Peace did not last, 415 BC Athens sent fleet to Syracuse (Sicily) to destroy them, one of the greatest allies of Sparta Ended in crushing defeat in 413 BC Athens, weak and few, continued to fight for nine more years 404 BC Athenians surrendered Lost empire, power, and wealth

26 Philosophers Search for TRUTH!
After war = time of doubt and uncertainty = rise of great thinkers Determined to seek truth Philosophers = “lovers of wisdom” Based philosophy on 2 assumptions: (1) The universe is put together in an orderly way, subject to absolute and unchanging laws (2) Understand laws through logic and wisdom

27 Important Question????? Why would philosophers start question traditional beliefs at this particular time in Athenian history????

28 Socrates Absolute standards did exist for truth and justice
Question yourself and moral character “The unexamined life is not worth living” 399 BC, age 60, trial for “corrupting youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s Gods” His defense: teachings good for Athens, because forced people to think about their actions and values Condemned to death, drinking hemlock

29 Important Question????? How does the trail of Socrates reflect on Athenian democracy???

30 Plato Student of Socrates
370 BC wrote The Republic, set forth vision of a perfectly governed society Not democracy All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups (1) farmers and artisans (2) warriors (3) ruling class Person with greatest insight and intellect from ruling class would e chosen as philosopher-king

31 IMPORTANT QUESTION??? Why wasn’t Plato put to death if he was doing the same thing as Socrates was?!?!?

32 Aristotle Student of Plato
Questioned nature of world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge Invented method of arguing according to rules of logic Invented basis of scientific method used today Famous pupil Alexander the Great (more information to follow….)

33 Socrates Alexander the Great Raphael Plato Aristotle

34 TERMS, defined…… Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representation Classical Art: ancient Greece, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized Tragedy: serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal Comedy: Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor Peloponnesian War: Sparta v. Athens Socrates: philosopher, “the unexamined life is not worth living”, developed Socratic method of teaching, sentenced to death by drinking hemlock Plato: philosopher, student of Socrates, The Republic was his vision of perfect government Aristotle: philosopher, student of Plato, invented basis of scientific method and classifying plants and animals, most famous student was Alexander the Great

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