Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece Unit 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ancient Greece Unit 3: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age World History Core
2 Cultural InteractionDemocratic principles and classical culture flourished during Greece’s golden age.
3 Why is it important today?!?!? At its height, Greece set lasting standards in art, politics, literature, and philosophy that are still influential today.
4 Terms: Be able to define these by the end of this PowerPoint Direct DemocracyClassical ArtTragedyComedyPeloponnesian WarPhilosopherSocratesPlatoAristotle
5 Setting the Stage…….For 50 years ( BC) Athens grew intellectually and artistically = Golden Age of AthensAchievements in:DramaSculpturePoetryPhilosophyArchitectureScience
6 Pericles’ Plan for Athens leader of Athens through Golden AgeBC, aka Age of Pericles3 GOALS(1) strengthen democracy(2) hold and strengthen empire(3) glorify Athens
7 Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of government Athenian DemocracyUS DemocracyBothCitizens: Born in US or completed citizenship processRepresentatives elected to propose and vote on lawsElected PresidentExecutive branch made up of elected and appointed officialsJuries composed of 12 jurorsDefendants and plaintiffs have attorneys; on appeals processPolitical power exercised by citizensThree branches of governmentLegislative branch passes lawsExecutive branch carries out lawsJudicial branch conducts trial with paid jurorsCitizens: male, 18 years old, born of citizen parentsLaws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizensLeader chosen by lotExecutive branch composed of a council of 500 menJuries varied in sizeNo attorneys; no appeals, one-day trials
8 GOAL 1: Strengthen Democracy Increased # of paid public officialsHaving paid officials meant even poor could serve if elected or chosen by lotDirect Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
9 Important Question??????How accurate do you think Pericles’ statement that Athenian democracy was in the hands of the “whole people”?
10 Goal 2: Hold and Strengthen Empire Delian League formed after Persian War. Athens took over leadership = dominated all city-states in itUsed $$$ from League to build up Athenian NavyAthens needed trade (waterways) to obtain grain and raw materials to support the city-stateAthens military strength=Pericles treated members of league as part of an empirePeloponnesus city-states resisted (Ex. Sparta)
11 Goal 3: Glorify Athens Used $$$ from League to make Athens beautiful Convinced Assembly to buy gold, ivory, and marble with fundsMore $$$ was also needed to contract artist, architects, and workers
12 Glorious Art and Architecture Goal: Greatest Greek artists/architects to glorify AthensPARTHENON = center of his plans
13 Architecture and Sculpture: Parthenon Parthenon (temple)23,000 sq foot building in tradition Greek designBuilt to honor Athena (Goddess of wisdom and protector of Athens)Statue of Athena inside 30 ft tall
14 Architecture and Sculpture: Sculptors Graceful, strong, and perfect (ideal beauty)Faces only show serenity (no other emotion)
15 Architecture and Sculptures: Classical Art Classical Art: ancient Greece ideal, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized
16 Drama and HistoryGreeks invented drama as an art form and built the 1st theatersCivic Pride and Honor to GodsWealthy put on productionsPlays showed leadership, justice, and duties owed to Gods
17 Tragedy Serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal Tragic hero: important figure and gifted with extraordinary abilityTragic flaw: hero’s downfallSophocles: wrote 100 plays, Oedipus the KingEuripides: Medea
18 Comedy Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor Made fun of politics and respected peopleSatire:Aristophanes: Lysistrata in which women of Athens try to force their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War
19 HistoryRecap: Dorian Age, no written records…had works of Homer, but not considered accurateHerodotus: a Greek, living in Athens, pioneered accurate reportingBook on Persian War = 1st history bookThucydides: believed certain events and political situations recur over time = important to write events down
20 Important Question?????Do you think that Thucydides was right in his assertion that history sometimes repeats itself??? YES OR NO…..
21 Athenians and Spartans Go to WAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Athens = power, prestige, and power = other city-states hostilitySPARTA!!!Sparta declared war in 431 BC
22 Important Question?????What might have been Pericles’ goals in the Peloponnesian War?
23 Peloponnesian War Athens = Navy Sparta = Army Pericles’ Strategy: avoid land battles and wait for a sea opportunitySparta marched into Athens territoryPericles had no other choice but to bring people into city wallsCity safe from hunger as long as ships could come into ports2nd year of war PLAGUE outbreak in Athens, killing 1/3rd of population and PERICLES!!!Athens still continued to fight for several years421 BC signed a truce (worn out by war)
24 Important Question?????Why might the plague that struck Athens in the second year of the war have been so devastating???
25 Sparta Gains VICTORY!Peace did not last, 415 BC Athens sent fleet to Syracuse (Sicily) to destroy them, one of the greatest allies of SpartaEnded in crushing defeat in 413 BCAthens, weak and few, continued to fight for nine more years404 BC Athenians surrenderedLost empire, power, and wealth
26 Philosophers Search for TRUTH! After war = time of doubt and uncertainty = rise of great thinkersDetermined to seek truthPhilosophers = “lovers of wisdom”Based philosophy on 2 assumptions:(1) The universe is put together in an orderly way, subject to absolute and unchanging laws(2) Understand laws through logic and wisdom
27 Important Question?????Why would philosophers start question traditional beliefs at this particular time in Athenian history????
28 Socrates Absolute standards did exist for truth and justice Question yourself and moral character“The unexamined life is not worth living”399 BC, age 60, trial for “corrupting youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s Gods”His defense: teachings good for Athens, because forced people to think about their actions and valuesCondemned to death, drinking hemlock
29 Important Question?????How does the trail of Socrates reflect on Athenian democracy???
30 Plato Student of Socrates 370 BC wrote The Republic, set forth vision of a perfectly governed societyNot democracyAll citizens fall naturally into 3 groups(1) farmers and artisans(2) warriors(3) ruling classPerson with greatest insight and intellect from ruling class would e chosen as philosopher-king
31 IMPORTANT QUESTION???Why wasn’t Plato put to death if he was doing the same thing as Socrates was?!?!?
32 Aristotle Student of Plato Questioned nature of world and of human belief, thought, and knowledgeInvented method of arguing according to rules of logicInvented basis of scientific method used todayFamous pupil Alexander the Great (more information to follow….)
33 SocratesAlexander the GreatRaphaelPlatoAristotle
34 TERMS, defined……Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representationClassical Art: ancient Greece, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasizedTragedy: serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayalComedy: Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humorPeloponnesian War: Sparta v. AthensSocrates: philosopher, “the unexamined life is not worth living”, developed Socratic method of teaching, sentenced to death by drinking hemlockPlato: philosopher, student of Socrates, The Republic was his vision of perfect governmentAristotle: philosopher, student of Plato, invented basis of scientific method and classifying plants and animals, most famous student was Alexander the Great