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The Foundations of Civil Engineering and Architecture in Czech Republic Ing. arch. Klára Frolíková Palánová, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "The Foundations of Civil Engineering and Architecture in Czech Republic Ing. arch. Klára Frolíková Palánová, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Foundations of Civil Engineering and Architecture in Czech Republic Ing. arch. Klára Frolíková Palánová, Ph.D.

2 First archeologic monument is settlement Prehistoric and early historic fortified settlement By purpose is known –Offensive settlement –Tribal (kmenové) settlement In early historic we named „settlement“ also castles, made from wood (Prague castle, Old Plzenec)…we call this period time settlement ( century) in our region where build also settlement by Celtic named „oppidum“ (from Latin), i. e. small town or protected place From Slavic settlement we know dwelling groundnut (zemnice), log huts (srubové chaty), square huts and building made from wicker (proutí)

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5 mounds and tumuli easily visible in the landscape Circle or oval layout Cremation burials or skeletal

6 cult sites and iconic buildings Menhir (men – stone; hir – long…from caltic) – megalithic building separate elongated unworked stones Menhir in Prague - Dolní Chabry, Ládevská street

7 Cave – oldes dwelling of man Cave Šipka (Arrow) by town Štramberk

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9 Roman military camps - castrum fortified quadrilateral rectangular intersection of two main streets Legionářský tábor; horní strana je obrácena k nepříteli 1 Principia 2 Via Praetoria 3 Via Principalis 4 Porta Principalis Dextra (right gate) 5 Porta Praetoria (main gate) 6 Porta Principalis Sinistra (left gate) 7 Porta Decumana (back gate) silnice od Porty Decumany až po Via Principalis je Via Decumanareets

10 Monuments of Great Moravian Empire 9. century till 906 (because of the raids of nomadic Hungarians) Christianity from Italy, Bavarians, and the Frankish Empire (Germanization) Therefore duke Rostislav requested by the Byzantine Emperor Michael III. east Christian missionaries: Cyril and Methodius from Thessaloniki, they came in 863 at Velehrad (they found own language and font for needs of Great Moravian Empire) Fortified buildings – palisade system and stone wall Fortified settlements Pohansko by Břeclav

11 Churches – rotunda and longitudinal

12 Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque From Archaeology to Architecture, monuments and buildings still standing Pre-Romanesque –The Carolingian style (10. century) –Rotunda st. Víta (Prague castle) –Ottonian style (10. – 11. century) –block church on settlement Libice by Poděbrady

13 Romanesque ( 12. – 13. century ) Charakters: –small and simple buildings –its weight and balance –vaulting – cupola, concha, barrel vault, cross vault –Thick wall

14 Romanesque arches: 1-cupola 2-concha 3-barrel vault 4- oblique pressure in the vault

15 Concession portal Ramanesque windows

16 building types –Churches (chancel turn to the East) - central and longitudinal rotunda on the mountain Rip

17 Basilica. George at Prague Castle Romanesque Basilica

18 Monastery 1.A group of buildings for community of men or women – religious. 2.knightly orders (rytířské řády) 3.Templars Educations centers Monastery –Church –Convent (refektory, dormitory, the chapter hall, kitchen and storeroom…around the paradise garden complemented by well - lavatorium) –farm yard and garden

19 Castles 1.residence of the monarch, duke… 2.Hunting castle 3.Guard (stráž) castle 4.Bishop´s clastle Prag castle

20 Stone houses single-storey and two-storey houses indications street development

21 Judith Bridge

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