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Modal Auxiliary. Can and Could A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: Can: Can is used.

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Presentation on theme: "Modal Auxiliary. Can and Could A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: Can: Can is used."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modal Auxiliary

2 Can and Could A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: Can: Can is used to express ability, willingness, permission, or possibility. The negative of can is cannot or the contraction cant.

3 In this example can expresses the possibility. Example: I can cook dinner. In this example can expresses the ability to cook dinner. Example: Can you pass me the ketchup? In this example Can expresses the willingness pass me the ketchup. Example: Can I use your pencil? In this example Can expresses the permission to use your pencil. Example: Intense light can hurt your eyes.

4 Directions: Say how can is used in each sentence. Circle A if it is used to express ability, W if it is used to express willingness, Per if it is used to express permission and Pos if it is used to express possibility. 1) I can tie my shoes. A W Per Pos 2) Can I have a piece of gum? A W Per Pos 3) If you ride a motorcycle, you can fall. A W Per Pos 4) Can you get me a drink of water? A W Per Pos 5) I can speak English well. A W Per Pos

5 Could Could has at least three functions. First, it can replace can and give the phrase a more conditional tone. Second, it can function as a the past tense of can. Third, it can function in the same way as might or may, suggesting that something is a possibility. The negative of can is could not or the contraction couldnt.

6 Could functions the same way as might or may in this sentence. Example: You could have been an astronaut if you wanted to. In this example could expresses the conditional ability to be an astronaut in the past. Example: He couldnt let me have his pencil because he needed it. In this example couldnt expresses the lack of permission to have his pencil in the past. Example: Jane could be at the store right now. In this example could expresses the possibility that Jane is at the store in the present.

7 Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence 1) I (could, can) help you with your homework now. 2) Five years ago, I (cannot, couldnt) play the piano. 3) I (can, could) get an A on the test. 4) I (can, could) run ten miles if I train hard enough. 5) We (can, could) speak English well.

8 May and Might A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: May: May is used to express permission or possibility. The negative of may is may not. Example: I may become a doctor. In this example may is used to express the possibility of me becoming a doctor in the future. Example: May I have a glass of water? In this example may is used to ask permission to have a glass of water.

9 Might Might is used to express possibility. It differs from may in that the possibility it expresses is usually smaller. The negative of might is might not. Example: I might become a doctor when I grow up, but I doubt it. In this example might is used to express the small possibility that I will become a doctor when I grow up.

10 Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence. 1) When I grow up, I (may, might) become an engineer. 2) There is a small chance the we (may, might) go to the beach this weekend. 3) There is a good change that we (might, may) have to postpone the meeting. 4) Billy and I (may, might) cook dinner tonight. 5) The airplane (might, may) crash. 6) You never know, I (may, might) become president one day.

11 Must and Have to A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: Must: Must has two functions. First it expresses a strong belief. This belief is not based on fact, but rather on logic. Second, it expresses an obligation. The source of this obligation is internal (coming from oneself). The negative of must is must not or the contraction mustnt. Example: My keys must be around here somewhere. In this example must expresses a strong belief that is based on logic. Example: I must climb Mount Everest. In this example must expresses the obligation to climb Mount Everest that comes from an internal source (no one external to me is forcing me to do it).

12 Have to Have to has several functions. First it expresses a strong belief. This belief is not based on fact, but rather on logic. Second, it expresses an obligation. The source of this obligation is external (coming from your boss, the law, an authority). The negative of have is do not have to. Example: Yoko has to win this race to advance to the next round. In this example has to expresses a strong belief that is based on logic. Example: My mother says that I have to make my bed. In this example have to expresses an obligation coming from an external source (my mother).

13 Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence. 1) My boss told me that I (have to, must) work overtime this week. 2) I (must, have to) get my hair cut before the dance. 3) She (has to, must) pay monthly rent to live in her apartment. 4) Teds dad said that he (must, has to) clean his room before he can play. 5) I (have to, must) buy those pretty red shoes.

14 Ought to and Had better A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: Ought to: Ought to is used to express the ideal (best) action. It is different from should in that it gives a sentence a more obligatory tone. The negative of ought is ought not or the contraction oughtnt. Example: I ought to become a doctor because my father was a doctor. In this example ought to is used to express the ideal and somewhat obligatory action to become a doctor.

15 Had better Had better is used in the same way as ought (they are rough synonyms). The negative of had better is had better not. Example: He had better wash his hands before he eats. In this example had better is used to express the ideal and somewhat obligatory action to wash his hands before he eats.

16 Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence. 1) I (had better / ought to, will) wash the dishes before mom gets home. 2) If she wants to, Hopi (had better / ought to, could) become a famous actor. 3) I cant decide if I (had better / ought to, should) go to the movie tonight. I guess I will, because I dont have anything else to do. 4) Jerry (had better / ought to, might) mow the lawn before the family picnic. 5) The firemen (would, ought to / had better) extinguish the fire quickly.

17 Shall and Should A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: Shall: Shall is to express a future action. It is different than will in that it is used to express an order or prophecy. The negative of shall is shall not or the contraction shant. Example: I shall become a doctor. In this example shall is used to express the prophecy of me becoming a doctor in the future. Example: Tomorrow, you shall climb to the top of Mt. Everest. In this example shall is used to order or command a future action.

18 Should : Should is used to express the ideal (best) action which happens in the past, present, or future. The negative of should is should not or the contraction shouldnt. Example: I think I should make chicken for dinner tonight. In this example should is used to express that making chicken is the best future action. Example: I should get paid more for the hard work that I do. In this example should is used to express that it would be ideal for me to get paid more for my present action.

19 Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence. 1) Mom thinks you (should, shall) clean your room. 2) Trains (shall, should) go faster. 3) This weekend (should, shall) be the best weekend ever! 4) I (should, shall) be a writer when I get older. 5) Police (shant, shouldnt) be allowed to drive so fast. 6) Our team (should, shall) have tried harder.

20 Will and Would A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: Will: Will is used when you are volunteering to do something in the future, or when you are deciding at the time of speaking to do something in the future. The negative of will is will not or the contraction wont (See Using will and going in the future tense folder of the advanced section of this website for more information on will). Example: I will cook dinner. In this example will is used to volunteer to cook dinner in the future. Example: I think I will go to the beach this Sunday. In this example will is used to express a future action that is being decided upon at the time of speaking.

21 Would : Would has several functions. First, it functions as the past tense of will. Second, it functions as the conditional mood of will. Third, it is used to be polite. The negative of would is would not or the contraction wouldnt. Example: I would try to act like my father when I was young. In this example would functions as the past tense of will. Example: I would get a tan if I worked at the pool. In this example would functions as the conditional mood of will. Example: I would like more tea please. In this example would is used to be polite.

22 Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence. 1) My dog and I (would, will) go for walks when she was younger. 2) I (will, would) buy new shoes if I had enough money. 3) I am feeling tired. I think I (would, will) go to sleep now. 4) I (will, would) like more milk when you get a chance. 5) I dont think we (will, would) ever win the game.


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