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Mario Campanaro NCLB 2/6/09

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1 Mario Campanaro NCLB 2/6/09
Comprehension Strategy Instruction: The Differences That Make A Difference Mario Campanaro NCLB 2/6/09

2 Visit the website for… Power Point Additional copies of the handout
Lesson plans from all the tools we talk about today

3 If your Students have difficulty with…
Making inferences Summarizing Identifying the main idea Read words fairly well, but do not comprehend what they read Then… you won’t have buyer’s remorse… THIS SESSION IS FOR YOU!

4 Reading Comprehension
A short time to discuss a complex topic Focus for this session will be on three factors that make a difference: researched-based solutions for teaching reading comprehension(don’t be frightened-the research discussion will be painless) THE TOOLS TEACHERS AND STUDENTS NEED how to develop self-regulated readers who love to read and can blow away high stakes tests

5 Based on recent Research 2003-2008…
5 large and informative studies I have conducted How teachers teach comprehension What professional development model is useful What “tools” teachers need to support teaching comprehension Comprehension strategies students bring to class How students use and apply strategies

6 Students have difficulties comprehending text because…
They have not been taught to be a strategic/ metacognitive readers Many will never figure out how to be strategic on their own-particularly the struggling reader

7 How do I know Because: I taught struggling readers
I have studied the rich research available concerning reading comprehension and metacognition I have conducted research in reading comprehension and metacognition

8 How do I know… Most teachers have not been trained to teach comprehension Most materials available do not teach comprehension- test comprehension Studies by Durkin(1978/79), Pressley(1995,2006), Campanaro Today’s presentation is based on the findings from recent EB studies

9 Comprehension-what have I learned?
Some students will get it if we don’t teach it All students will if we do! Teachers must receive professional development training to effectively teach students to comprehend and become self-regulated independent readers

10 The teacher reality principle Time Fit Lack of Expertise
I have learned that research-based practices don’t always work for teachers…why? The studies The researcher The teacher reality principle Time Fit Lack of Expertise

11 Let’s get going and observe a group of expert readers
Let’s explore what they do when they read Let’s discover how they learned to be proficient self-regulated readers…expert readers Oh…Who are the expert readers

12 Practice Activity: 2 minutes
What are the 3 grootste aantallen that can wordt gemaakt using the cijfers 3, 4, 6, and 7? Elk cijfer must be used only een en elk aantallen. Merk uw antwoord. 7643 3467, 3476, 3647 7643, 7634, 7463 34, 36, 73 grootste aantallen = largest numbers wordt gemaakt = be created cijfer = digit Merk uw antwoord = mark your answer

13 How did you learn to be a strategic reader?
Discuss Share EB’s vision…

14 Bridge Between Research and the Classroom

15 Bridge needed between research and practice
Identify the research that works Conduct research that is needed Operationalize the research for teachers

16 Research Validated Strategies based on 30 years of research
Making predictions Asking questions Inferring Activating prior knowledge- connections Visualizing Summarize Monitor comprehension-fix up Identifying Important Information Set purpose for reading

17 Address the Teacher Reality Principle
Time Fit to curriculum Lack of training Link strategy instruction to state/local curriculum. Provide tools that do not require additional time to teach Provide professional development training-not product orientation sessions. Link standards to strategies

18 State Standards: 25 key standards recast as strategies
Vocabulary: Author’s Craft Context Clues Author’s purpose Synonyms/antonyms Author’s point of view Figurative language Genre Story Structure Main idea Summary Character traits Setting Order of important events Comprehension Cause/Effect Inference Fact/Opinion Comparing story variants

19 Instructional Model for Teaching Comprehension Strategies
Gradual Release of Responsibility Approach Teacher Demonstration Concrete to Abstract (Modeling) Teacher Directed Practice (Guided Practice) Monitored Student Application (Independent Practice) Independent Student Application (Use in Everyday Reading) AEA’s comprehension programs use the 4 components of comprehension strategy instruction called explicit instruction or as AEA refers to it the Gradual Release of Responsibility Approach. This is our version of the Gradual Release and how it applies to everyday teaching. How many of you have taken a researched approach and tried to use it in the classroom and it didn’t work as it stated by the researchers. That is because the conditions that are used in these research projects are controlled. AEA takes research and uses it in school classrooms just like your classroom. This provides us with our own research in order to take these methods and make them work in your classroom. Talk about each step. Also, if you would like you can refer to page 3 in the article by Fielding and Pearson. Look under Direct Instruction, 2nd paragraph in the middle of the paragraph in italics. Read this to the teachers. I sometimes read this section to them. You could also go back to the first page and look at the last paragraph and talk about what instruction looks like many classrooms. Once we have modeled these strategies for students they must practice them to become automatic. Look at page 3 the first paragraph. Read to teacher. Practice Makes Perfect

20 Reading Comprehension: What Works Educational Leadership, Fielding and Pearson
Joint All Student All Teacher Responsibility Guided Practice Gradual Release of Responsibility Independent Modeling

21 Educational Bridge:Research-based tools to accelerate comprehension
For teachers Tools to diagnose Tools to teach For students Tools to support strategy development Tools to support independence and self-regulation

22 EB Research Findings GRR Think-Alouds Conditional Knowledge
Fast Mapping Multiple Strategies Provisions for Independent Practice and Student Application of Strategies All teachers in experimental groups demonstrated improved capacity to teach reading comprehension strategies Students of experimental group teachers out performed control in reading achievement and gains in metacomprehension

23 Comprehension is Taught, Not Caught
A comprehensive plan/approach is required across grade levels and content areas Tools for teaching comprehension are needed based on the gradual release of responsibility instructional model and determining students’ levels of comprehension and metacognition

24 Third Grade Science Test

25 Metacomprehension Strategy Index (Schmidt, 1990)
What it is? 25 items to explore how: How a student thinks about text Before, During, and after reading

26 26

27 Validated Strategies-
Questioning, etc. 27

28 G RR for State curriculum& assessment 28

29 Summary Foundations for teaching summary Not a one time event
Start at the beginning of the school year-mentor texts The one minute read-alouds The Bio Pyramid

30 Probable Passages Before Reading After Reading

31 Probable Passages-Hot Stuff
Class Clown School No funny ideas Ben Disruptive Humorous Lunch room Pizza Hot peppers Laughing students Nurse’s office

32 Bio Pyramid Mario Educational Publisher_______(2 words describing person) English Language Learner(3 words/childhood) Learning to Read Text(4 word/problem) Earned A Doctorate in Reading (5 word/accomplishment) Authored several professional books in reading(6 word second accomplishment) Founded Celebration Press publisher of the DRA (7 word third accomplishment) Students become strategic and metacomprhensive readers of text (8 word benefits of accomplishments)

33 You try Construct a bio pyramid about yourself Stop at line 5 Discuss

34 Summary Pyramid: Narrative Text: Hot Stuff
Character’s name-Ben Two words describing Ben-Class Clown Three-word phrase describing the setting-Walking to school Four words indicating problem- needed funny idea quickly From: FastMapping for Comprehension

35 You try with a partner Complete steps 5-8 for Hot Stuff
Identify the words your students may not know while completing the narrative pyramid for Hot Stuff

36 What’s so Hot about Hot Stuff
From: FastMapping for Comprehension

37 Fast Mapping…What is it?
Recent comprehension research by Dr Cathy Collins Block(2007) Learner requires 6 intensive in-depth experiences with a new strategy to form a neural pathway that enables application

38 Bridge to Reading Comprehension Chapter Books
FastMapping applied to connected text Focus strategies-7 opportunities Maximize flexible use of texts-read-alouds, guided reading, independent reading. My Almost Perfect Life- T/G Chapter 3

39 Informational Pyramid
Line 1-Topic Line 2-Two words describing the topic Line 3- Three words describing action of the topic Line 4- Four-word phrase telling about the environment of habitat Line 5 -Five-word phrase telling one important fact about the topic Line 6- Six-word phrase telling another important fact about the topic Line 7- Seven-word phrase stating a third important fact about the topic Line 8-Eight word question-what else you want to learn about the topic

40 You Try It in small group
Perspectives anthologies Nonfiction section only

41 What’s Perspectives Teaches critical thinking and deep comprehension K-6 Opposing points view explored through various genres-fables, fairy tales, nonfiction, fiction, etc. Apply all the comprehension(cognitive) strategies when exploring differing points-of-view

42 Sustaining the use of Strategies
Developing Readers Lesson plans for the 25 key strategies found on state curriculums and high stakes assessments Strategies applied to all classroom texts Hot Stuff words-Context Clues Developing Readers lesson plan for context clues-use your own materials

43 Inference He put down $10 at the window. The woman behind the window gave $ The person next to him gave him $ 3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn.

44 Skillful readers… Recognize the antecedents for pronouns
Figure out the meaning of unknown words from context clues Figure out the grammatical function of an unknown word Understand intonation of characters’ words Identify characters’ beliefs, personalities, and motivations Understand characters’ relationships to one another

45 Skillful readers… Provide explanations for events or ideas that are presented in the text Offer details for events or their own explanations of the events presented in the text Understand the author’s view of the world Recognize the author’s biases Related what is happening in the text to their own knowledge of the world Offer conclusions from facts presented in the text

46 Skillful Teachers… Follow a Gradual Release Model Think-Aloud
Build Background Knowledge Teach the 3 types of strategy Knowledge(Declarative, Procedural, Conditional) Teach Multiple Strategies Make Provisions for Independent Practice

47 Student Recording Sheet
George Miller (1957) Magical Number Seven Distributed practice Working Memory Long term memory

48 Vocabulary Development
Common prefixes and suffixes Flip Dictionary (Developing Thinkers)

49 Flip Dictionary

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