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1Comprehension Focus Groups: An Intervention for Reversing Reading Failure WelcomeIntroductionParking lotEtc.Dorn, L. & Soffos, C. (2009). Interventions that Work: Comprehension Focus Groups. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.1
2Objectives Develop an understanding of Comprehension Focus Groups Analyze lessons within the Reading and Writing phasesDiscuss observations of teaching practices during CFG phasesObjectives for today’s session
3Comprehensive Intervention Model Systemic and layered design for increasing the literacy achievement of struggling readers in kindergarten to eighth gradesReading Recovery (1st grade)Oral Language and Literacy Group (K-8th grades)Guided Reading Plus Group (1st-6th grades)Assisted Writing/Interactive Writing Group (K-1st grades)Assisted Writing/Writing-Aloud Group (1st-4th grades)Writing Process Group (1st-8th grades)Comprehension Focus Group (2nd-8th grades)Content Strategy Group (3rd-8th grades)Response to Intervention3 tiers, starting with universal instruction- classroom instruction and differentiationThe interventions in Comprehensive Intervention Model can be used within the RtI tiers
4Comprehensive Intervention Model Teachers must be experts in observing the changes that occur over time in children’s literacy behaviors and be able to make moment-to-moment decisions based on their children’s strengths and areas of needNone of the interventions in CIM are ‘packages’. It always comes down to data, observations, and teacher expertise.
5Comprehension Focus Groups A series of reading and writing lessons in a specific genre that occur over a period of weeks. The goal is to help struggling readers develop efficient strategies for problem solving in texts and to comprehend the message at deeper levels.In a unit of study, we take what we know about writing, we take what we know about our students, and we plan a series of lessons that get students thinking about this genre of reading and writing in important ways. We know that when we leave this unit of study, the door will still be wide open for students to learn more. “Coverage” just doesn’t seem to work as a concept for writing curriculum. “Depth” is the word we need in order to help us plan. We’ll go deep, staying down as long as we can, but eventually we’ll have to come back up for air.As teachers, we must set up acquisition settings where all learners in our classrooms construct their own knowledge. Let’s discuss some of theoretical principals that support learning.Briefly turn and talk- what are some best practices/ guiding principles in learning and teacher instruction?5
6Comprehension Focus Groups Thirty minutes dailyPredictable framework with established routinesUnits of study for deep comprehensionBook Studies-- minimum of three weeks per setWriting Process - typically two weeks per pieceProgress monitoring (end of each unit)Begins with reading phasesContinues with writing phases
7Teaching Focus: Comprehension To help students consistently use knowledge of text genre and text structures in order to read for a specific purpose and to use appropriate strategies to construct meaning.To help students consistently use knowledge of text genre and text structures in order to write for a specific purpose and to use strategies to convey an appropriate message.The focus in both the reading phase and the writing phase is on comprehension and the strategies we use that help us understand text.
8Materials Mentor Texts for Genre Unit of Study Multiple Copies of Texts Within a Genre Unit of StudyLarge Chart Paper for Constructing Anchor ChartsLarge Chart Paper for Writing-Aloud ActivityLarge Laminated Copies of Text Maps (Reading)Large Laminated Copies of Text Guides (Writing)Student Response Logs with Three TabsReproducible Copies of Text Maps & Guides for LogsReproducible Copies of Comprehension Prompts for LogsReproducible Copies of Strategic Behaviors in Reading and Writing
9Large Chart Paper for Co-Constructed Charts Charts are used during each of the phases in CFG- reading and writing
10Large Text MapsText maps and text guides are used during reading and writing phasesAlthough there are separate reading and writing phases, students are always connecting reading and writing
11Appropriate Texts Texts can be picture books or chapter books. Appropriate for students reading and allowing student choice
12Strategic Prompts--- Word Solving & Comprehension Teacher models thinking through CFG and using strategies when readingStudents use prompts to help them think about their reading, discuss their reading and write about their reading.
13Comprehension Focus Group: Personal Narrative Study DVD Episodes for Observation and AnalysisHandoutsPlanner for Comprehension Focus Groups- filled inGuide Sheet for CFGT-chart for taking notesQuickly go through next few slides, explaining the prepare for reading phase
14DVD Chapter 1: Prepare for the Reading Phases Episode 1: Introduction to the GenreEpisode 2: Prepare for the ReadingExplain 2 video clips of preparing for reading phase
15Prepare for the Reading Phases Teacher introduces new genre.Teacher reads aloud a mentor text and teacher and students discuss text at meaning level.Teacher and students analyze text structure for the genre on a large text map and discuss why understanding text structure deepens comprehension.Teacher uses data from the lesson to determine if further lessons are needed on understanding the genre.15
16Prepare for Reading Phases Refer to handoutPrepare for Reading Phases
17Prepare for the Reading Phases Teacher introduces 3 books for book study.Students use strategies to preview each book and rank order for reading.Students explain why they selected their top choice.Teacher gives students blank copy of a single map to complete after reading the entire text.Students place copy behind “Text Map” section in response log.Watch video clips of preparing for the reading phasesWrite down observations on t-chart handoutGuiding Questions:Introduction to the genreWhat are some examples of how the teachers provides explicit language and clear demonstrations to build connections between text structure and reading comprehension?Prepare for the readingHow much time does the teacher devote to each introduction? How does she scaffold the students to apply previewing strategies for selecting and ranking the three books? Observe the students’ behaviors and record specific evidence that indicates their understanding of these critical strategies.Turn and talk after each clip17
18DVD Chapter 2: Reading Phase One Comprehension Mini-LessonBook OrientationIndependent ReadingStrategy PromptThere are two reading phasesWithin each phase, we will watch a few video clipsRefer to handout: Planner for CFG
20Teacher teaches a word solving strategy or a comprehension strategy. Reading Phase OneTeacher teaches a word solving strategy or a comprehension strategy.During lesson, the teacher prompts students to verbalize strategies they used to problem-solve on words or comprehend the message.Teacher records strategies on an anchor chart.Summarize stepsGuiding Questions:Comprehension mini lesson-The mini-lesson includes two critical components: teacher modeling and think aloud for using comprehension strategies; opportunities for the students to apply the strategies with teacher support. As you watch, make note of these two components.Observe the interaction for evidence that the students are applying the knowledge gained from the mini-lesson to independent practice.20
21Before ReadingTeacher provides a book introduction to the new book, including a purpose for reading.Teacher prompts students to read silently and flag their thinking while reading.Summarize stepsBook orientationGuiding Questions:Observe how the teacher establishes two purposes for reading the text. First she prompts the students to read for comprehension. Then the teacher prompts the students to read for a strategy purpose. Why would the strategy prompt be important for struggling readers in an intervention group?
22During Reading Students read independently and flag their thinking. Teacher conducts 1-1 conferences, observing and recording reading strategies, listening for fluency and prompting for comprehension.Summarize stepsIndependent reading and teacher conferencesGuiding questions:Observe the reading behaviors of the three students. What does their reading indicate about their comprehension?On the final reading conference: The student’s hesitations on particular types of words provide the teacher with a window on the student’s processing. Discuss the student’s responses and the teacher’s prompting.22
23After ReadingStudents respond in log (tab 2) to a special comprehension or a problem-solving strategy prompt that promotes self-reflection (metacognition).• Teacher brings the phase to closure by summarizing the learning.SummarizeWatch video clipIn this clip, the students use the strategy checklist as a resource by underlining strategies they used durng independent reading and providing written evidence from the text. Why is it important for struggling readers to use response logs and strategy checklists. How can these resources be used to promote the students’ self-reflection activity?
24DVD Chapter 2: Reading Phase Two Text MapBook DiscussionComprehension PromptAfter going through reading phase one, students use their text to fill out a text map independently, with teacher support as needed, and continue with a book club discussion and comprehension prompt.
26Completing Text MapStudents complete individual text map in reading log (tab 3).Teacher and students use this information to prepare for the book discussion.SummarizeGuiding Questions:Observe how the teacher interacts with the students as they complete their text map. How does she use this component as an opportunity for individual conferences? How will her observations of individual students’ learning provide data for progress monitoring? Discuss how the mapping activity serves as a scaffold for supporting the book discussion.
27Before the DiscussionTeacher reviews conversational moves on anchor chart.Teacher might focus on particular conversational moves for today’s discussion.summarize27
28During the Discussion• Teacher and students engage in book discussion.Teacher prompts students to discuss texts at deep levels by providing some specific higher level comprehension prompts.Teacher prompts students to useconversational languagewhile discussing the text.SummarizeGuiding Questions:The book discussion component is approximately 10 minutes, but this clip focuses on a shorter segment for analysis.Observe the interaction and collect evidence of the students’ learning. Is the teacher’s initiating prompt appropriate for encouraging discussion? Why do you think the teacher began with the prompt from the independent reading?How do the students build on one another’s comments?What is the teacher’s role in the discussion? Listen to her prompts and discuss their value for promoting the students’ deeper comprehension.28
29After the DiscussionStudents respond in log (tab 1) to a special comprehension prompt that assesses deep comprehension of text.SummarizeWatch video clipsGuiding Questions for Comprehension prompt:How does this component provide systematic data for monitoring the students’ comprehension over time? Why did the teacher insert the written prompt in the log? Would a verbal prompt have provided the same assessment data? Discuss how progress monitoring and charting of students’ learning is a feature of an intervention group?29
30Getting Ready for Writing Phase Focus Unit for Personal NarrativeFollowing the reading phases, after completing the reading phases with a few books, or a chapter book, CFG will go into the writing phase for up to two weeks
31During Writing: Assess & Prompt for Strategy Use
32Materials for Writing Phases Mentor Texts for each GenreChart Tablet for Constructing ChartsLarge Paper for Group Activity with Text MapsIndividual Text Maps for WritingStudent Response Logs with TabsReproducible Copies for Student Logs (Text Maps & Charts)Strategic Prompts for Word-SolvingCrafting Prompts for Deeper Reflection
33Mentor Texts for Focus Study Use mentor texts from reading phases
37Response Log With Four Tabs My ThinkingMy StrategiesText MapsGoal: Is two fold: In reading workshop, we want the children to read texts, apply appropriate comprehending processes and respond to their thinking in their log. It is also a way for the teacher to assess the students comprehending processes and to look for patterns of responding across the student’s log and to plan for further instruction.Text Guides3737
38Prompts for Word Solving Crafting Strategies Circle the strategies you used today in your writing to enhance comprehension for your readers.Give evidence from your writing to support your answer.I used details to help my readers visualize and comprehend.I used specific nouns to help my readers visualize.I used strong verbs to make my images come alive.I used a variety of sentence lengths for effect.I used figurative language to help my readers visualize.
39Writing… The mirror side of reading Writing Study begins after students have completed Book Study for 3 or more books
40Writing Phase = Writing Process Approximately two weeks to prepare a piece of writing for publication
41Principles of the Writing Phase Text guides are useful for planning writing.Writing-aloud provides a clear model of the writing process.Writers develop a piece of writing by taking it through the writing process.Mentor texts are used to teach writing craft.Strategy prompts provide writers with a scaffold for guiding and assessing performance.Teacher conferences focus on assisting the writer to improve.
42Prepare for the Writing Process Refer to handoutPrepare for the Writing Process
43Preparing for the Writing Phase Teacher and students review the text structure for the genre.Teacher and students choose an idea to write about for the group writing (writing aloud).Teacher and students use a ‘text guide’ to plan their writing.SummarizePlan for Writing:Guiding Questions:Observe how the teachers prompts the students to write about a common (and recent) experience. Why is this important? How will the background influence the quality of the group composition including the student’s ability to use descriptive language?Observe how the teacher uses explicit language to build deliberate bridges between the reading and writing processes. Discuss how the mapping experience will provide a scaffold for organizing the group text.43
44Preparing for the Writing Phase Teacher and students use the ‘text guide’ to draft and revise their group piece, using their knowledge of text structure, composing strategies, crafting techniques, and language use and conventions to prepare their piece for an audience.Teacher guides the writing process as the students reflect on the completed piece and the process itself.SummarizeWriting AloudGuiding Questions:Observe how the teacher involves the students in the group composition. How did the previous component with the text guide prepare the students to contribute to the group composition?44
45Preparing for the Writing Phase Students list ideas for writing their own personal narrative.Teacher provides each student with a “text guide” to plan for independent writing.SummarizeWatch video clips of prepare for writing phaseIdea ListGuiding Questions:Observe the teaching and learning interaction throughout the episode. What are the students learning? How does the teacher provide a balance of group and individual support?45
48Phase Three: Strategy Lesson Before Independent Writing Teacher uses the same mentor text to present a writing strategy lesson.Teacher prompts students to verbalize the composing strategies used by the author to help his/her readers comprehend.Teacher may record strategies on an anchor chart.SummarizeMini-lesson on craftGuiding Questions:During the mini-lesson on crafting, the students are able to analyze the author’s writing at a deeper level? What are the students learning about the craft of writing? How will this help them in crafting their own personal narratives? How does the teacher prompt them to be specific in their language descriptions?48
49During Writing Process Students use “text guides” to assist with composing message.Teacher conducts 1-1 conferences, observing, prompting and recording composing strategies, and listening for fluency of thinking.SummarizeIndependent Writing and conferences:Guiding Questions:Observe how the teacher prompts the students to articulate their thinking about the writing process. How does the teacher meet the needs of the individual students during the writing conferences?49
50Strategy Prompt for Self-Assessment Students respond in log to a special writing strategy prompt.Teacher brings the writing to closure by summarizing the learning.SummarizeWriting strategy prompt:Guiding Questions:What are the students learning about crafting their writing? How does the writing strategy checklist promote independence and self-reflection in writing?50
51Phase Three: After Writing Students share their writing with the group.Students provide feedback to authors.SummarizeWatch video clips51
52Key Concepts of Comprehension Focus Groups Over a sustained period of time (6-9 weeks), the students read and compare texts within the genre study.A collection of texts are earmarked as mentor texts and used as models for reading and writing.The teacher gives students a precision prompt to focus their thoughts for writing in their response logs.The students read numerous texts within the genre, and engage in book discussions with the teacher, comparing the similarities and differences within and across texts.The teacher meets individual reading needs through one-to-one conferences.The goal is that students develop deeper knowledge of how authors write to help readers comprehend their messages.Final thoughts3-2-1 handout if timeAdditional handouts on table- blank planner for CFG and Comprehension Strategy checklistDistrict Points reminderStaff development evaluation