Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: People and Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1: People and Government Who was Aristotle?The word state and country have familiar terms.State comes from the Latin word stare, meaning “to stand”.The word state precisely identifies a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws.
2 Chapter 1 Features of a State Population Territory Sovereignty Having supreme and absolute authority within one’s territorial boundaries.No one can tell it what to do.Government
3 Chapter 1 The purpose of Government 1) Maintain social order Tell people to pay taxes, serve in militaryHave power given to certain entities to enforce lawsDo stuff that you wouldn’t normally do2) Providing Public ServiceBuilding sewer systems, checking meat, requiring people to pass driving tests3) Providing National Security4) Making economic decisionsGovernments controlling what is made or producedLaws on national currencyRegulate the development of natural resources
4 Chapter 1 Section Review The word state…also used to mean country Ex: United States is one of about 200 states in the worldFeatures of a state:PopulationTerritorySovereigntyGovernmentPurposes of a GovernmentMaintain social orderProvide public servicesTo provide for national securityTo provide for and control the economic system
5 Chapter 1 Section 2 Systems of Government Unitary System- a system that gives all key powers to the national or central government. Ex: Great Britain, France, Italy.2. Federal System- system that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments. Ex: United States.
6 Chapter 1 Section 2 The Constitution Simply, it is a plan that provides the rules for governmentServes several major purposes:Sets out ideals that the people bound by the constitution believe in and share.Establishes the basic structure of government and defines the government’s powers and duties.Provides the supreme law for the country.
7 Chapter 1 Section 2A constitution is an incomplete guide b/c it could not say everything you could do or not do, and some countries do not follow their constitutions exactly either.Constitutions basically give procedures and guidelines for local, state (territory), and national governments to abide by and educate on how to change laws or add new ones (amendments).A constitution is also the highest law in a state (country). Accepted as a superior, morally binding force.Constitutional law involves the interpretation and application of the constitution. Primarily concerns defining the extent and limits on government power and rights of citizens.
8 Chapter 1 Section 3 Types of Government : 3 types (1 on next pg.) AutocracyRuled by oneTotalitarian dictatorshipHitler (Germany)Stalin (Russia)MonarchyKing, queenPowers pass through inheritanceAbsolute monarchsSaudi ArabiaConstitutional MonarchGreat Britain: 3 types (1 on next pg.)-- OligarchyRuled by the fewChinaSome countries claim they are for the people but really are notElections become fixedAll politicians are suppressed
9 Chapter 1 Section 3 Democracy Rule by many persons Abe Lincoln said it best “Government of the people, by the people, and for the people.”Two forms of democracyDirect democracy= people govern themselves directlyIndirect or Representative democracy= elect representatives and give them the power and responsibility to make laws and conduct government
10 Chapter 1 Section 3 Characteristics of Democracy Individual LibertyGov works to promote equal opportunity for everyoneMajority Rule with Minority RightsDecisions based on majorityRights of the Minorities are kept in mind so no one is deprived or repressed of any right granted them in their country’s constitution.Free ElectionsFew requirements: Age, registered in an area, citizenNo tax on voting…so everyone can do it“one person, one vote”Competing political partiesGives choices rather than certaintiesKeeps the public informed
11 Chapter 1 Section 4 Economy in Government 3 TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS: Each economic system in the world makes three decisions:What and how much is produced?How goods and services should be produced?Who receives the goods and services that are produced?3 TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS:CapitalismSocialismCommunism
13 Chapter 1 Section 4 Free Enterprise 5 main characteristics Private ownership and control of property and economic resourcesFree enterpriseCompetition among businessesFreedom of choicePossibility of profitsAdam Smith (Wealth of Nations) and Laissez-faire, French for “to let alone”The market decides the 3 questions.
14 Chapter 1 Section 4 Capitalism in the US US has a mixed market economy It is an economy in which free enterprise is combined with and supported by government decisions in the marketplaceThe stimulus billRegulating railroads, roads, bridges, air travel
15 Chapter 1 Section 4 Socialism The government owns everything (basic means of production, use of resources, wages, and social services)Three goals:The distribution of wealth and economic opportunity equally among peopleSociety’s control, through its government, of all major decisions about productionPublic ownership of most land, of factories, and of other means of production
16 Chapter 1 Section 4 Socialism cont. Democratic Socialism People have basic human rights and have some control over government officials through free elections and multiparty systems.However, the government owns the basic means of production and makes most economic decisions.Great Britain, Tanzania, Sweden use this system…government controls steel mills, shipyards, railroads, and airlines. Also, provide healthcare and other social services.
17 Chapter 1 Section 4 Communism Base of the writings of Karl Marx ( )Believed the population is divided in industrialized nations.Capitalists (bourgeoisie) owned the means of productionWorkers (proletariat) worked to produce the goodsHe theorized that capitalists were the ruling class b/c they used their economic power to rule and forced their will on the workers.He also believed that wages would stay at a subsistence level…enough for the workers to survive but not prosper like the capitalists.
18 Chapter 1 Section 4 Communism cont. Communism is also known as a Command EconomyGovernment planners decide how much to produce, what to produce, and how to distribute the goods and services produced.The state (country) owns everythingHurts people because some cases, they are told where to live and where to work.China is a good example of a communist state. However, they have begun to loosen its control and decentralize some business decisions.