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Classifications of Governments

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Presentation on theme: "Classifications of Governments"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classifications of Governments
Unitary System, Federal System, and Confederacy. Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy. Characteristics of a Democracy.

2 Geographical Distribution of Power
Where is the power to govern located?

3 Unitary System Unitary System-the power to govern is given to the national or central government. Example - Great Britain, Italy, and France developed unitary governments as they emerged from smaller kingdoms. England’s King Richard I, Lion-Hearted (shown here), along with France’s King Philip II Augustus, and the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa, led the Third Crusade ( ). Although the crusaders failed to defeat the Muslims, Richard I negotiated a treaty granting Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem. "Richard I," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

4 Federal System Federal System - the power to govern is shared between the national, state, and local levels. Example - The U.S. after the 13 colonies became states through today.

5 Confederacy Confederacy - A loose organization of independent states held together by a weak central government. Example - The U.S. before the Constitution and the South during the Civil War. During the American Civil War ( ), Jefferson Davis served as the president of the Confederate States of America. As secretary of war under United States President Franklin Pierce and a two-term senator from Mississippi, Davis was a pro-slavery advocate who initially opposed secession. However, when his state withdrew from the Union, he resigned from the U.S. Senate in support of the South. "Jefferson Davis," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

6 Who has the power to govern?

7 Autocracy Autocracy - any system of government in which the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual. Historically, this is maintained by the ruthless use of military or police power. Adolf Hitler (right) is considered one of the most brutal dictators in history. After purging possible rivals for leadership, Hitler rearmed Germany into a modern war machine. He and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (left), both Fascists, became allies in They are shown here in Munich, Germany, in 1937. "Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

8 Autocracy 1)Totalitarian Dictatorship - a single leader seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life. Examples - Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, and Fidel Castro. In 1956 Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro and about 80 armed followers returned from exile in Mexico and landed on the southern shore of Cuba. Government troops killed most of the rebels during the landing, but Castro and a handful of men escaped to the mountains of eastern Cuba, where they continued a guerrilla campaign to oust Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Batista fled the island on January 1, 1959, and Castro emerged as the leader of the new government in Cuba. "Castro as a Rebel Leader," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

9 Autocracy 2)Monarchy - A king, queen, or emperor exercises the supreme powers of government. Positions are usually inherited. French king Louis XIV ruled from 1643 to Louis was convinced that the power of the monarchy came by divine right, and he exercised absolute control over France and the French people. Determined to make France into a strong, culturally advanced nation, he built up the French military and actively supported French artists and writers. Louis’s reign was the longest in the history of Europe, and became the model for other absolute monarchies in 18th- century Europe. "Louis XIV," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

10 Autocracy - Monarchy A)Absolute Monarchy-Monarchs have complete and unlimited power to rule their people. Ex. King of Saudi Arabia, today they are rare but they ruled Western Europe from 1400s-1700s Saudi Arabia is a monarchy with no separate legislature or political parties. Fahd ibn Abdul Aziz (seated in the foreground) became king of Saudi Arabia in In King Fahd established the Shura Council, a 60-member advisory body. "King Fahd," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

11 Autocracy - Monarchy B)Constitutional Monarchy - Monarch shares government powers with elected legislature. Serves mainly as ceremonial leaders of their governments. Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland upon the death of her father, King George VI, in The primary role of Elizabeth throughout her reign has been as a symbol of unity and continuity within the Commonwealth of Nations. "Elizabeth II," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

12 Oligarchy Oligarchy - any system of government in which a small group holds the power. Example - Communist China. As in dictatorships, oligarchies usually suppress all political opposition-sometimes ruthlessly. Mao Zedong, also spelled Mao Tse-tung, led the Chinese Communist movement in the 1930s and 1940s, and became ruler of China in As ruler, Mao strayed from the Soviet Marxist model, attempting to build a socialist society on peasant farming rather than a centralized, bureaucratic, industrialized economy. His program for implementing his ideas, called the Great Leap Forward, failed, yet people all over the world have studied his writings on guerrilla warfare and the role of common people in Communist revolutions. Mao remained the Chinese leader until his death in 1976. "Mao Zedong," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

13 Democracy Democracy - any system of government in which rule is by the people. Lincoln described it as, "government of the people, by the people, and for the people." Lincoln's election as president of the United States, seven Southern states seceded from the Union because they feared that Lincoln would abolish slavery. Four more states had followed by the time Lincoln delivered his first inaugural address on March 4, 1861. "President Lincoln," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

14 Democracy 1)Direct Democracy-the people govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens. No country has a government based on direct democracy. Ancient Greek city-states were often run as direct democracies in which all voting citizens (commoners, women, and slaves were excluded) had a voice in what occurred. This painting depicts a gathering of citizens at a public forum. "Public Forum," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

15 Democracy 2)Representative Democracy - the people elect representatives and give them the power to make laws and conduct government. This is considered to be the most efficient way to ensure the rights of the individual citizen. In representative democracies, citizens elect people to serve in legislative and executive positions. These representatives, invested with the confidence of their constituencies, then try to convey the interests and desires of these constituencies by participating in governmental processes. In the United States, citizens elect people to the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together comprise the nation’s bicameral legislature. Citizens in each state elect two senators and a certain number of representatives based on the population of the state. Here, members of the Senate (right) and House of Representatives (left) meet in their respective chambers to discuss legislation. "Representative Democracy," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

16 Republic Republic - voters hold sovereign power. Elected representatives who are responsible to the people exercise that power. The terms representative democracy and republic mean basically the same thing.

17 Characteristics of a Democracy

18 Individual Liberty Individual Liberty-all people are as free as possible. People have equal opportunity to develop their talents.

19 Majority Rule with Minority Rights
Majority Rule with Minority Rights-To protect from the 'tyranny of the majority.' This is to insure that the rights of the minority will be protected. Why is it difficult to maintain this? The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, This event propelled the United States into World War II. Fearing disloyalty from the Japanese-American population, the United States government ordered the removal of 112,000 of them to internment camps. Here, a Japanese-American child looks warily at the military policeman responsible for moving his family to a camp. "Japanese-American Internment," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

20 Free Elections Free Elections-Free and open elections to choose their leaders and voice their opinions on various issues.

21 Competing Political Parties
Competing Political Parties-This is to give voters choice among candidates.

22 Free Enterprise Free Enterprise- the population and businesses control their economic decisions.

23 What can you do for your country now and in the future?
John F. Kennedy stated one of democracy’s basic ideals when he said, “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” What can you do for your country now and in the future?

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