Presentation on theme: "Classifications of Governments Unitary System, Federal System, and Confederacy. Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy. Characteristics of a Democracy."— Presentation transcript:
Classifications of Governments Unitary System, Federal System, and Confederacy. Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy. Characteristics of a Democracy.
Geographical Distribution of Power Where is the power to govern located?
Unitary System Unitary System-the power to govern is given to the national or central government. Example - Great Britain, Italy, and France developed unitary governments as they emerged from smaller kingdoms.
Federal System Federal System - the power to govern is shared between the national, state, and local levels. Example - The U.S. after the 13 colonies became states through today.
Confederacy Confederacy - A loose organization of independent states held together by a weak central government. Example - The U.S. before the Constitution and the South during the Civil War.
Who has the power to govern?
Autocracy Autocracy - any system of government in which the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual. Historically, this is maintained by the ruthless use of military or police power.
Autocracy 1)Totalitarian Dictatorship - a single leader seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life. Examples - Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, and Fidel Castro.
Autocracy 2)Monarchy - A king, queen, or emperor exercises the supreme powers of government. Positions are usually inherited.
Autocracy - Monarchy A)Absolute Monarchy-Monarchs have complete and unlimited power to rule their people. Ex. King of Saudi Arabia, today they are rare but they ruled Western Europe from 1400s-1700s
Autocracy - Monarchy B)Constitutional Monarchy - Monarch shares government powers with elected legislature. Serves mainly as ceremonial leaders of their governments.
Oligarchy Oligarchy - any system of government in which a small group holds the power. Example - Communist China. As in dictatorships, oligarchies usually suppress all political opposition- sometimes ruthlessly.
Democracy Democracy - any system of government in which rule is by the people. Lincoln described it as, "government of the people, by the people, and for the people."
Democracy 1)Direct Democracy-the people govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens. No country has a government based on direct democracy.
Democracy 2)Representative Democracy - the people elect representatives and give them the power to make laws and conduct government. This is considered to be the most efficient way to ensure the rights of the individual citizen.
Republic Republic - voters hold sovereign power. Elected representatives who are responsible to the people exercise that power. The terms representative democracy and republic mean basically the same thing.
Characteristics of a Democracy
Individual Liberty Individual Liberty-all people are as free as possible. People have equal opportunity to develop their talents.
Majority Rule with Minority Rights Majority Rule with Minority Rights-To protect from the 'tyranny of the majority.' This is to insure that the rights of the minority will be protected. Why is it difficult to maintain this?
Free Elections Free Elections-Free and open elections to choose their leaders and voice their opinions on various issues.
Competing Political Parties Competing Political Parties-This is to give voters choice among candidates.
Free Enterprise Free Enterprise- the population and businesses control their economic decisions.
What can you do for your country now and in the future? John F. Kennedy stated one of democracy’s basic ideals when he said, “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”