Presentation on theme: "Regional and Economic Differences. Another Revolution Affects America New approaches such as interchangeable parts erode the value of artisans and workshops."— Presentation transcript:
Another Revolution Affects America New approaches such as interchangeable parts erode the value of artisans and workshops. – If you can purchase the same part to replace a broken one, you don’t need a skilled person to create a unique one. Factories drive production now – Each person gets an individual task. – Makes mass production possible
Another Revolution Affects America Brings about an industrial revolution – Social and economic reorganization that takes place. – Machines replace hand tools – Large-scale factory production developed The revolution starts in Great Britain
Another Revolution Affects America The Industrial Revolution in the U.S. – Primary source of income after the American Revolution is international trade Such as trading grain and tobacco to Great Britain – The Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 push America toward developing domestic industry
Another Revolution Affects America New England’s desire for industrialization was domestically the strongest desire of any region – Agriculture in the region is not highly profitable – Shipping and foreign trade is the primary source of income – Pawtucket, Rhode Island (1793) First successful mechanized textile factory. – Waltham, Mass. (1813) mechanized every part of manufacturing cloth.
Another Revolution Affects America Many of the changes from the Industrial Revolution could be seen in Lowell Mass. – Lowell becomes a manufacturing boomtown. – Thousands of people (many women) flock to Lowell in search of work
A view inside a cotton mill in Lowell Massachusetts
A look at the mills in Lowell Mass. On the Merrimack River
Two Economic Systems Develop Cash crops or (a crop grown for profit) did not take off in the North. Cash crops take off in the South. – The South has little motivation to industrialize. – The North has more motivation to industrialize. Farming in the North is small-scale – Not reliant on much labor – Growing what the family needs – Little economic need for slavery by the late 1700s – Northerners also begin religious and political protests to slavery – By 1804 all northern states voluntarily abolish slavery
Two Economic Systems Develop Cotton is King! – Eli Whitney’s cotton gin (cotton engine) in 1793 puts the South on a different course than the North. – Whitney’s cotton gin allows for the growth of short staple cotton as a cash crop Heavy demand for cotton in the North and Great Britain – The cotton gin expands slavery. Plantations get bigger and expand into Mississippi, Alabama and New Orleans.
Two Economic Systems Develop Entrenching Slavery – By the 1820s the need for slaves increased. – From 1790 to 1810 Cotton production increased from 3,000 bales to 178,000 – During the same period of time, slaves in the South increased from 700,000 to 1,200,000. – From 1619 to 1776 250,000 slaves were brought to the U.S. – From 1790 to 1808 250,000 slaves were brought to the U.S.
Two Divergent Economies How can the United States bond these diverging economies?
Clay Proposes the American System Madison proposes an agenda to attempt to unite the country – Develop transportation systems and other internal improvements – Establish a protective tariff – Resurrect the national bank (reduced by Jefferson) Old critics of James Madison, John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay support Madison’s proposal. It is referred to as the American System.
Clay Proposes the American System The American System explained: – The North would produce the manufactured goods that farmers in the South and West buy. – The South and West would produce the grain, meat, and cotton need in the North. – Create economic independence from Europe – Reliant on national road network and a national currency
Clay Proposes the American System Erie Canal and other internal improvements – To bring different regions together economically strong communication and travel lines are necessary. – Railroads Fast, able to cross most terrain, and can work in bad weather – Turnpikes paid for through tolls by people traveling – Highways funded by the Fed. Gov. similar to tolls except no toll
Clay Proposes the American System Erie Canal and Other Internal Improvements – National Road: started in 1811, by 1838 the new road extended from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois – Erie Canal (The Big Ditch): Completed by 1825. 363 miles total, it took eight years to dig. Linked the Hudson River to Lake Erie (The Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes). Canal tolls paid for the construction within 12 years. Other countries would follow the example and buld 3,000 miles of canal by 1837
Nationalism at Center Stage Supreme Court Justice John MarshallPresident John Quincy Adams
Supreme Court Boosts National Power Gibbons Vs. Ogden: Aaron Ogden believes he has exclusive to run a steamship line between NY and NJ. The Supreme Court rules that no one can have “exclusive rights” since the steamship line crosses state boundaries. – Outcome: The federal government has the power to govern interstate commerce Today this power gives the government the right to monitor radio waves, television, and cellular communications.
Supreme Court Boosts National Power McCulloch vs. Maryland: Chief Justice John Marshall again guides the Supreme Court to a ruling to strengthen control of the government over the economy. Overturned a state law in Maryland that taxed a local branch of the Bank of the U.S. Outcome: National government supported over state governments
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy John Quincy Adams establishes foreign policy guided by nationalism. Nationalism: A belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries.
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Territory and Boundaries – Adams works under President James Monroe to develop the following: Adams prioritizes national safety and expansion Works out a treaty with Great Britain to cut down on the fleets in the Great Lakes Rush-Bagot Treaty: Demilitarizes the border between Canada and the U.S. Convention of 1818: Fixes the 49 th parallel from the Pacific to the Rocky Mountains as the border with Canada.
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine – Spain and Portugal want to reclaim old colonies after defeating Napoleon in 1815. – Russia is establishing trading posts in California Poses a threat to trade with China – America felt something needed to be done
Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Monroe Doctrine – Monroe warns all outside powers not to get involved in the Western Hemisphere – No new colonies – Do not overthrow newly independent republics – The U.S. will avoid European affairs – The U.S. will avoid any existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere
Nationalism Pushes America West Expansion to the West – Many settlers travel west as an escape Debts The law – Some settlers push west for economic gain Land is plentiful and cheap Easy to change occupations on the frontier
Nationalism Pushes America West The Missouri Compromise – Need 60,000 in a territory for statehood – Missouri is seeking to apply for statehood but the issue of slavery gets in the way. – U.S. had 10 free and 10 slave states until 1818 – Illinois then admitted as a free state – Alabama then admitted as a slave state – Missouri is perceived as the balance of power between slave and free
Nationalism Pushes America West Slaveholders claim the North is attempting to end slavery. Northerners accuse the South of a plot to extend slavery into new territories Compromise: Maine to be admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana territory is split into two spheres. One is for slaveholders, one is for free settlers (“36” “30” North Latitude).
Nationalism Pushes America West Thomas Jefferson on slavery and the Missouri Compromise, “ This momentous questions, like a firebell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the union. It is hushed, indeed for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence.”