2Another Revolution Affects America New approaches such as interchangeable parts erode the value of artisans and workshops.If you can purchase the same part to replace a broken one, you don’t need a skilled person to create a unique one.Factories drive production nowEach person gets an individual task.Makes mass production possible
3Another Revolution Affects America Brings about an industrial revolutionSocial and economic reorganization that takes place.Machines replace hand toolsLarge-scale factory production developedThe revolution starts in Great Britain
4Another Revolution Affects America The Industrial Revolution in the U.S.Primary source of income after the American Revolution is international tradeSuch as trading grain and tobacco to Great BritainThe Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 push America toward developing domestic industry
5Another Revolution Affects America New England’s desire for industrialization was domestically the strongest desire of any regionAgriculture in the region is not highly profitableShipping and foreign trade is the primary source of incomePawtucket, Rhode Island (1793) First successful mechanized textile factory.Waltham, Mass. (1813) mechanized every part of manufacturing cloth.
6Another Revolution Affects America Many of the changes from the Industrial Revolution could be seen in Lowell Mass.Lowell becomes a manufacturing boomtown.Thousands of people (many women) flock to Lowell in search of work
7A view inside a cotton mill in Lowell Massachusetts
8A look at the mills in Lowell Mass. On the Merrimack River
9Two Economic Systems Develop Cash crops or (a crop grown for profit) did not take off in the North. Cash crops take off in the South.The South has little motivation to industrialize.The North has more motivation to industrialize.Farming in the North is small-scaleNot reliant on much laborGrowing what the family needsLittle economic need for slavery by the late 1700sNortherners also begin religious and political protests to slaveryBy 1804 all northern states voluntarily abolish slavery
10Two Economic Systems Develop Cotton is King!Eli Whitney’s cotton gin (cotton engine) in 1793 puts the South on a different course than the North.Whitney’s cotton gin allows for the growth of short staple cotton as a cash cropHeavy demand for cotton in the North and Great BritainThe cotton gin expands slavery.Plantations get bigger and expand into Mississippi, Alabama and New Orleans.
11Two Economic Systems Develop Entrenching SlaveryBy the 1820s the need for slaves increased.From 1790 to 1810 Cotton production increased from 3,000 bales to 178,000During the same period of time, slaves in the South increased from 700,000 to 1,200,000.From 1619 to ,000 slaves were brought to the U.S.From 1790 to ,000 slaves were brought to the U.S.
12Two Divergent Economies How can the United States bond these diverging economies?
13Clay Proposes the American System Madison proposes an agenda to attempt to unite the countryDevelop transportation systems and other internal improvementsEstablish a protective tariffResurrect the national bank (reduced by Jefferson)Old critics of James Madison, John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay support Madison’s proposal.It is referred to as the American System.
14Clay Proposes the American System The American System explained:The North would produce the manufactured goods that farmers in the South and West buy.The South and West would produce the grain, meat, and cotton need in the North.Create economic independence from EuropeReliant on national road network and a national currency
15Clay Proposes the American System Erie Canal and other internal improvementsTo bring different regions together economically strong communication and travel lines are necessary.Railroads Fast, able to cross most terrain, and can work in bad weatherTurnpikes paid for through tolls by people travelingHighways funded by the Fed. Gov. similar to tolls except no toll
16Clay Proposes the American System Erie Canal and Other Internal ImprovementsNational Road: started in 1811, by 1838 the new road extended from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, IllinoisErie Canal (The Big Ditch): Completed by miles total, it took eight years to dig. Linked the Hudson River to Lake Erie (The Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes). Canal tolls paid for the construction within 12 years.Other countries would follow the example and buld 3,000 miles of canal by 1837
17Nationalism at Center Stage Supreme Court Justice John MarshallPresident John Quincy Adams
18Supreme Court Boosts National Power Gibbons Vs. Ogden: Aaron Ogden believes he has exclusive to run a steamship line between NY and NJ. The Supreme Court rules that no one can have “exclusive rights” since the steamship line crosses state boundaries.Outcome: The federal government has the power to govern interstate commerceToday this power gives the government the right to monitor radio waves, television, and cellular communications.
19Supreme Court Boosts National Power McCulloch vs. Maryland: Chief Justice John Marshall again guides the Supreme Court to a ruling to strengthen control of the government over the economy.Overturned a state law in Maryland that taxed a local branch of the Bank of the U.S.Outcome: National government supported over state governments
20Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy John Quincy Adams establishes foreign policy guided by nationalism.Nationalism: A belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries.
21Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Territory and BoundariesAdams works under President James Monroe to develop the following:Adams prioritizes national safety and expansionWorks out a treaty with Great Britain to cut down on the fleets in the Great LakesRush-Bagot Treaty: Demilitarizes the border between Canada and the U.S.Convention of 1818: Fixes the 49th parallel from the Pacific to the Rocky Mountains as the border with Canada.
22Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Monroe DoctrineSpain and Portugal want to reclaim old colonies after defeating Napoleon in 1815.Russia is establishing trading posts in CaliforniaPoses a threat to trade with ChinaAmerica felt something needed to be done
23Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Monroe DoctrineMonroe warns all outside powers not to get involved in the Western HemisphereNo new coloniesDo not overthrow newly independent republicsThe U.S. will avoid European affairsThe U.S. will avoid any existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere
24Nationalism Pushes America West Expansion to the WestMany settlers travel west as an escapeDebtsThe lawSome settlers push west for economic gainLand is plentiful and cheapEasy to change occupations on the frontier
25Nationalism Pushes America West The Missouri CompromiseNeed 60,000 in a territory for statehoodMissouri is seeking to apply for statehood but the issue of slavery gets in the way.U.S. had 10 free and 10 slave states until 1818Illinois then admitted as a free stateAlabama then admitted as a slave stateMissouri is perceived as the balance of power between slave and free
26Nationalism Pushes America West Slaveholders claim the North is attempting to end slavery.Northerners accuse the South of a plot to extend slavery into new territoriesCompromise: Maine to be admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana territory is split into two spheres. One is for slaveholders, one is for free settlers (“36” “30” North Latitude).
27Nationalism Pushes America West Thomas Jefferson on slavery and the Missouri Compromise,“ This momentous questions, like a firebell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the union. It is hushed, indeed for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence.”