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Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism Chapter 7.

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1 Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism Chapter 7




5 Objectives Describe the effects of the Industrial Revolution on the US. Explain how two different economic systems developed in the North and South. Describe the tension between Adams and Jackson. Explain Jackson’s spoils system and his appeal to the common citizen. Identify some of Jackson’s economic policies and their impact on his successor.

6 Regional Economies Create Differences Eli Whitney: demonstrated the 1 st musket of interchangeable parts Mass production: production of goods in large quantities Brought about an Industrial Revolution: economic reorganization as machines replaced hand tools


8 Great Britain Started 18 th century Power-driven machinery Mass-produced textiles

9 Industrial Revolution in US Thomas Jefferson: Embargo Act of 1807 War of 1812 Forced Americans to develop industries Embargo: prohibited American from shipping goods to Europe

10 New England Industrializes Using plans from an English mill Francis Cabot Lowell built a weaving factory in Waltham, MA People came for work


12 Two-Economic Systems Cash crops did not grow in the north but they did in the south Northern farmers had small farms that didn’t require much labor to flourish

13 Cotton is King Whitney: cotton gin (1793) Short-staple cotton was easier to grow but harder to clean than long-staple Cotton gin: made it possible for farmers to grow short- staple for more money Plantation owners bought up all the land and through slave labor cultivated it 1820: the plantation system was common (LA,MS, AL)

14 Slavery Slave importation declined during the Am. Rev. by 1820’s slaves grew 1790-1810: slaves 700,000 to 1,200,000; Cotton 3,000 bales to 178,000 bales

15 American System Develop transportation systems Est. protective tariff Resurrect national bank

16 Erie Canal National road: (1811) from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois Erie Canal: 363 miles Eight years to dig Linked Hudson River to Lake Erie





21 Nationalism Shapes Policy John Q. Adams: est. foreign policy guided by nationalism National interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns Monroe Doctrine: After Spain and Portugal defeated Napoleon in 1815, they wanted to reclaim former colonies in Latin America Many Americans wanted northern Mexico and Spanish colony of Cuba President Monroe: warned all outside powers not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere

22 Missouri Compromise New states added to the Union Slave or free? Louisiana Territory split into two spheres at the 36’30’ north latitude South: slavery (Legal) North: except Missouri (Slavery banned)


24 Andrew Jackson 1824: Jackson won the popular vote but not the electoral vote House of Reps had to decide (nobody won majority) Henry Clay (Speaker of the House) hated Jackson Jackson lost Adams won Jacksonians claimed Dams stole the election when Adams appointed Clay secretary of state

25 Election of 1828 Most states eased the voting requirements 1824: 350,000 white males voted 1828: 3X that voted Jackson had great appeal to the common man Humble origins Old Hickory

26 Spoils System “To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy” Fired 10% of the federal employees from former presidents “Kitchen Cabinet” gave jobs to loyal Jacksonians Slipped into the White House through the kitchen

27 Indian Removal Act 1830 Jackson: assimilation could not work Forced Native Americans to move west Trail of Tears 800 mile trip Cherokee force to relocate Government stole money and possessions along the way 25% of their people died

28 The Great Father

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