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Chapter 7- Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism 1812-1838.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7- Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism 1812-1838."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7- Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism

2  Let’s look at the preview questions: 1.How do you think new inventions of the Industrial Revolution might further divide North and South? 2.Predict what types of things might have been done to lessen tensions. 3.Are there still tensions between different regions? What are they? The Industrial Revolution

3 The North: becomes more industrialized The Lowell Factory – Lowell, MA  exemplified the changes brought on by the Indust. Revolution  Booming manufacturing center, textiles  Opportunities for women The North

4  Farmers in the North had little motivation to use slaves.  crops did not require as much labor to grow, had smaller farms  many began to speak out against slavery  Most northern states abolish slavery by 1804 The North

5  The Cotton Gin: patented by Eli Whitney in 1793  Turned much of the South into a “Cotton Kingdom”  Effect on slavery?  Increases from 700,000 to 1,200,000 from The South

6  James Madison tries to unite the country  Proposes a plan to tie all regions together through transportation, tariffs, and a national bank  Henry Clay calls it the American System The American System

7  Early forms of railroad to connect the regions of the country  National Road built in Eventually extends from Maryland to Illinois.  Erie Canal (completed in 1825) connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes The National Road and Erie Canal

8  Tariff of 1816  American products more expensive than foreign goods  Protective tariff placed on foreign goods  Northern Reaction: +  Southern Reaction: -  Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun helped gain support for the tariff The “Era of Good Feelings”

9  National Bank: Second Bank of United States (BUS)  create a nationally accepted currency  Reception less divided  Would make trade easier in different regions  James Monroe elected in the “Era of Good Feelings” The “Era of Good Feelings”

10 Robert Fulton’s steamboat-1807  150 miles up the Hudson in 32 hours  Method of transportation spread quickly to different regions  Helped unite economic life of the North and South Section 2- Nationalism at Center Stage

11  Marshall Court  John Marshall, a Federalist, was appointed by John Adams in 1801 and served as Chief Justice for 34 years.  He transformed nationalistic ideas into court decisions, which increased federal power and aided economic development.  Marshall elevated the prestige of the Supreme Court and strengthened its power The Supreme Court Boosts National Power

12 Gibbons v. Ogden 1824-Supreme Court Case  Aaron Ogden- worked for Fulton’s steamboat service  Claimed only he could run a steamboat service on the Hudson  Thomas Gibbons began running a steamboat service- Ogden sues and takes him to court  Court rules with Gibbons-interstate commerce could only be regulated by fed. Government  Long term- government can regulate ANYTHING that crosses state lines. Supreme Court Boosts National Power

13 McCulloch v Maryland 1819-Supreme Court Case  Maryland had levied a high tax on the local branch of the National Bank of the U.S.- hoped to make it fail  Court ruled against Maryland and claimed the National Bank to be constitutional.  One of many cases that strengthened the federal government. Chief Justice John Marshall (in office ) Supreme Court Boosts National Power

14 Nationalism  National interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns and foreign interests.  Strongly supported by President James Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams John Quincy Adams Nationalism helps shape foreign policy

15 “Nationalism is the habit of assuming that human beings can be classified like insects and that whole blocks of millions or tens of millions of people can be confidently labeled 'good' or 'bad‘” -George Orwell He goes on to make the differentiation between “nationalism” and “patriotism.” Patriotism, Orwell states, is harmless. It is a love of native culture, and the patriot has no need to impose that culture on others. But history is indeed littered with examples of triumphal nationalism, the notion of the nation as a claim to superiority. Nationalism vs. Patriotism

16 Nationalism- Good or Bad? Somewhere in between? Talk to your partner about this. Nationalism

17  John Quincy Adams- Sec. of State Accomplishments  Rush-Bagot Treaty, U.S. and Canada demilitarize their common border.  Convention of compromised with Britain to jointly rule Oregon territory, moved U.S. border at the 49 th parallel up to the Rocky Mountains  Adams-Onis Treaty Spain, too weak to manage colonies, cedes Florida to the U.S. and gave up claims to Oregon Territory Territory and Boundaries


19  Developments in Europe lead to interests in Latin American colonies by European nations. The Monroe Doctrine 1823  Message to Congress by President Monroe  Warns European nations not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere  U.S. would consider such action “dangerous to our peace and safety.”  The U.S. would not interfere in European affairs or existing colonies. The Monroe Doctrine 1823

20 Westward Expansion s  Americans headed to the Northwest Territory (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan)  Most went for economic gains GO WEST!

21  The Missouri Compromise-1820  When population of a territory reached 60,000 its people could petition for statehood  In 1819, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states  Missouri petitions for statehood in slave or free?  Hostilities between North and South over Missouri  Henry Clay proposes the Missouri Compromise: 1. Maine- admitted as a free state; Missouri- slave state ’ line established for Louisiana Territory-slavery legal south of the line ; illegal north of the line except Missouri The Missouri Compromise

22 Discuss with your partner how the Missouri Compromise was a victory for both the North and South. Predict how the compromise could lead to future problems. The Missouri Compromise

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