Presentation on theme: "EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES- GENERAL AND SPECIFIC, ULTIMATE, MEDIATE PROXIMATE The National Policy on Education itemizes the five national objectives upon which."— Presentation transcript:
EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES- GENERAL AND SPECIFIC, ULTIMATE, MEDIATE PROXIMATE The National Policy on Education itemizes the five national objectives upon which the Nigerian education policy is based. These are the building of:
a free and democratic society a just and egalitarian society a united, strong and self-reliant nation a great and dynamic economy a land of bright and full of opportunities for all citizens
The policy states further that education- quality of instruction should be directed and orientated towards the inculcation of the following values. respect for the worth and dignity of the individuals; faith in man’s ability to make rational decision; moral and spiritual values in inter- personal and human relations; promotion of the emotional, physical and psychological health of all children.
These all represent aims of education, or educational purpose or ends. They differ from objectives in that they do not relate directly to school or classroom outcomes. They are so distant that their attainment cannot be easily achieved during a learners interaction with school.
Aims can be achieved only after many years of the learner’s continuous and uninterrupted exposure to content and learning experiences. It is only after the learner has left school, or just before he/she does so, and having been exposed to the appropriate practice situations - test, assessment etc, that we can determine whether such educational aims as intellectual development, ‘self-realization’ etc, have been achieved or not.
From the description of aims and goals, we can understand that educational aims: are very distant target which can not be achieved through the instrumentality of a single school subject, in one academic year, using one kind of learning experience. are formulated not by the classroom teacher or school committee but by the highest education policymaking body in a country or by the Ministry of Education.
present a major problem for curriculum workers as to how best to translate these remote aims into more immediate and specific school outcomes. Whereas educational aims are so broad that no recognizable learner behaviour can easily be associated with them as indices of measurement, objectives whether general, specific, even instructional are more precise and are measurable.
TRANSLATING NATIONAL GOALS TO CLASSROOM OBJECTIVES The terms ‘general’ and ‘specific’; ‘ultimate’, ‘mediate’ and ‘proximate’ are relative and fall into continuum. They describe what educational objectives are to be achieved, at what stage, and when. For instance if the general objective of education is to produce a self-reliant, competent and productive citizen able to think rationally and independently, there and then we can derive a less general objective.
This can be done by setting up university to turn out competent engineers, scientists, experts in communication, administration etc; polytechnics to produce competent technologists and technicians and college of education to train competent teachers. Courses can be designed, syllabuses can be produced, units of lesson, lesson plans and lesson notes can be drawn.
Behavioural Objectives Objectives stated in precise measurable form will identify the exact behaviour called for. This explains why certain terms (understand, know, appreciate) which are vague, unobservable constructs are considered by behaviourists to be inadequate and unsuitable for stating behavioural objectives.
Instead action verbs such as ‘outline’, ‘describe’, ‘solve’ etc are preferred. These are words that point to quantifiable learner behaviours, hence objectives stated this wayare called behav- ioural objectives.
Stating instructional objectives in a behavioural form gives the description of a pattern of behaviour (or performance), we want the pupil to demonstrate as a result of the learning. When a behavioural objective is written in full and detailed form, it has three parts:
The action or behaviour the learner is to perform or manifest The conditions under which the action or behav- iour is to be performed T he criteria/the standard of performance by which the action is to be judged
As Example: Given three specimens of flowers, a razor blade, and a hand lens, draw the vertical section of two out of the three specimens, label five different parts. The Action: Taking the vertical section, observing the parts, drawing and labeling the parts. The Condition: Using the razor blade, the hand lens and the three specimens. The Standard of Performance: Naming five of the parts on two of the specimens
Another Example: Given a plain map of Nigeria identify by circling in pencil the names of ten state capitals. The Action: Using the given map, identify or locate ten state capitals. The Condition: Using the given map, and a pencil. The Standard of Performance: Locate ten state capitals.
We can find much assistance for the task of stating the action part of the instructional objectives in behavioural form from the action verbs provided by the Taxonomy of objective list discussed on chapter eight, pp 106.
EDUCATIONAL DOMAINS Apart from stating objects in measurable, quantifiable and observable ways the objectives must also encompass the three domains of education which are: Cognitive; Psychomotor; and Affective
COGNITIVE DOMAIN Action verbs are spread over the six levels of 1. Knowledge; 2. Comprehension; 3. Application; 4. Analysis; 5. Synthesis; and 6. Evaluation tasking students’ intellects and making them to think
PSYCHOMOTOR LEVEL / SKILLS This involves the use of hands and minds in hands- on, minds-on activities like drawing, cutting sections of plants and viewing under microscope, processing words on computer etc
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN Described in science as the development of appropriate attitudes like being curious, honest, objective, responsible etc. Also include developing leadership spirit, ability to work in team, developing sound interest and good attitudes toward learning and other things