2By the end of this session, you will: Know what should be the basis of all test/exam questions.Be able to connect assessment methods with your goals for students’ learning.Know how to write effective multiple choice questions.Know how to write and grade essays.
3Basis of Exam Questions The basis of all exam questions should be learning outcomes.Using Bloom’s Taxonomy can help you clarify what you want students to learn.By setting learning outcomes at different levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy, you will target exactly what you want students to know, be able to do, or have experienced as a result of learning activities in class.
4Bloom’s TaxonomyA system created to improve testing precision by categorizing cognitive functioning into distinct levels. Appropriate questions could then be developed to assess the desired level.System was developed by psychologist Benjamin Bloom at the University of Chicago in the late 1940s.
6Bloom’s TaxonomyTaxonomy is simply a system of categorizing and organizing.It is useful in illustrating how certain question types are better choices for assessing different levels of student mastery.An awareness of these levels can help to determine how well the students really know the subject.The taxonomy is hierarchical; each level is subsumed by the higher levels.So, a students functioning at the ‘application’ level has also mastered the material at the ‘knowledge’ and ‘comprehension’ levels.
7Designing and Constructing a Class Test Determine the aim(s) of the testDecide what weightage you should giveDecide on testing formats for each skillMake decisions on specific issuesDraw up a table of specificationsEstablish administration proceduresVet items writtenPre-test the testDo item analysis and build a test bankTest ProceduresIdentifying the purpose of testingConstruction of the testsScoring and reporting proceduresInterpretation of test scoresRecord keeping proceduresAnalysis of the test items
8Identifying the purpose of testing What kind of test is it to be?What do I want to be able to say or do with the results I obtain?What skills do I want to test and what sub-skills will be focused on?What are the practical constraints I have to work with?
9Test Blueprint / Table of Test Specifications A test blueprint is a detailed written plan for a test that typically includes descriptions of the test purpose and target audience; the content or performance areas it will cover, the types of items and number to be written for each content or performance area, difficulty level of item and the total number of items.
10Writing Test Specifications Need to decide on how to test- Tasks- Types of text- Topics/Themes- Format- Weightage- Time allocation
11Guidelines for Preparing a Test Blueprint Range of topics to be selectedThe topics selected must reflect their importance in the syllabus and teaching in the classroom.Range of skills to be tested- Bloom’s Taxonomy is used for testingthe cognitive domain.- HOTS are encouraged.- Skills tested should reflect classroom teaching andmatch the students cognitive development.Types of test itemsBoth objective and subjective items are preferred to capitalize the strengths of these items.
12Guidelines for Preparing a Test Blueprint Number of Items by Topic, Skill and Type- The number should reflect the importanceplaced on the topic and skill- A suitable number of items to enableinterpretation of students’ behaviour.Level of Difficulty of Test Items- For NRT, simple, moderate, difficult itemsfollow a normal distribution of approximately1 : 3 : 1- For CRT, basic or simple items are adequate.Allocation of MarksThe marks distribution must reflect the importance of the topics and skills tested
13Guidelines for test construction TeamworkVet each other’s workVet the stimulus/input material- appropriateness- balance and biasVet test items after they are writtenLook at the test as a whole - coherence
14Test Administration When and where will the test be administered? How will it be administered?Who will administer the test?What facilities/apparatus would be necessary for the successful administration of the test?
15Scoring ProceduresObjective tests have a pre-determined correct answer- computers- templatesSubjective tests require one that is suitable for skill testes or format used
16Reporting Procedures Raw scores (marks) Grades Ranking (class position)Profile reporting