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Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Gary.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Gary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods 6th Edition Chapter 3 Goals and Objectives

2 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Chapter Overview Standards, Goals, and Objectives Societal Goals for Education An Overview of Behavioral Objectives The Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains Some Misunderstandings About Behavioral Objectives The Cultural Roots of Objectives

3 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Standards and Goals Standards are expressions of societal values that are broad enough to be accepted by large numbers of individuals. Goals are derived from standards to more specifically identify what must be accomplished, and who must do what in order for standards to be met. They identify what will be learned from your instruction and motivate your learners to achieve practical end products.

4 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Objectives Objectives have two purposes –To tie standards to specific classroom strategies that will achieve those standards. –To express teaching strategies in a format that allows you to measure their effects on your learners. Behavioral Objectives define learning objectives in ways that allow a teacher to observe and measure changes in behavior within a specified period of time.

5 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Tyler’s Goal Development Approach The need for behavioral objectives stems from a natural preoccupation with concerns for self and task, sometimes to the exclusion of concerns for students. Tyler identified five factors for prioritizing what students should learn: –Subject-matter mastery –Societal concerns –Student needs and interests –Your school’s educational philosophy and community’s priorities –What instructional theory tells us can be taught.

6 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Figure 3.1: Tyler’s Considerations in Goal Selection Insert figure 3.1 here

7 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Recent Trends in National Goals Reports from several standards organizations have emphasized developing a “thinking curriculum.” These reports emphasize that students should: –Be trained to function in a technological world –Possess minimum competencies in reading, writing, and mathematics –Possess higher-order thinking and problem-solving skills –Be required to enroll in all the core subjects each school year –Be trained to work independently –Improve school attendance –Be given more activities that emphasize problem solving and decision making.

8 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e An Overview of Behavioral Objectives Behavioral objectives: –Focus instruction on a specific goal whose outcomes can be observed. –Identify the conditions under which learning can be expected to occur. –Specify the level or amount of behavior that can be expected from the instruction under the conditions specified.

9 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e An Overview of Behavioral Objectives (continued) Action verbs help operationalize the learning outcome expected from an objective and identify exactly what the learner must do to achieve the outcome. Outcomes specified in a behavioral objective should be expressed as an end (e.g., to identify, recall, list), and not as a means (e.g., to study, watch, listen). If the observable learning outcome is to take place with particular materials, equipment, tools, or other resources, these conditions must be stated explicitly in the objective.

10 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Identifying Behavioral Objective Conditions Conditional statements within a behavioral objective can be singular (one condition) or multiple (more than one condition). Conditions should match those under which the behavior will be performed in the real world.

11 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Stating Behavioral Objective Criterion Levels A proficiency level is the minimum degree of performance that indicates an objective has been met. Proficiency levels are value judgments as to what level of performance will be required for adequately performing the behavior at a later time. Expressiveness in an objective refers to the amount of flexibility allowed in a response. More expressive objectives are less structured; less expressive may call for a single right answer.

12 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains Complexity of a behavior in the cognitive, affective, or psychomotor domains pertains to the operations required of the student to produce the behavior, not to the complexity of the teaching activities required. These domains are organized by the following behaviors: –Cognitive: Development of intellectual abilities and skills. –Affective: Development of attitudes, beliefs, and values. –Psychomotor: Coordination of physical movements and performance.

13 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Behaviors in the Cognitive Domain Behaviors in the cognitive domain, arranged according to Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives are, from least to most complex: –Knowledge –Comprehension –Application –Analysis –Synthesis –Evaluation Behaviors requiring higher-order cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills are regarded as more authentic behaviors.

14 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Behaviors in the Affective Domain Behaviors in the affective domain, from least to most complex: –Receiving –Responding –Valuing –Organization –Characterization

15 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Behaviors in the Psychomotor Domain Behaviors in the psychomotor domain, from least to most complex: –Imitation –Manipulation –Precision –Articulation –Naturalization

16 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Which Behaviors Are More Desirable? One misconception that results from the study of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains is that simple behaviors (e.g, recall) are less desirable than complex ones. The simple-to-complex ordering of behaviors does not imply desirability – achieving objectives at lower levels is the basis for achievement at higher levels of behavioral complexity.

17 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Some Misunderstandings About Behavioral Objectives Four important cautions in using the taxonomies of behavioral objectives are: 1.No behavior specified is more or less desirable than any other. 2.Higher cognitive skills are often more authentic than lower cognitive skills. 3.Less complex behaviors are not necessarily easier to teach, less time consuming, or dependent on fewer resources than are more complex ones. 4.Behavior in one domain may require achievement of one or more behaviors in other domains.

18 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Cultural Roots of Behavioral Objectives Behavioral objectives have their roots in the educational values we espouse as a nation. Texts, curricula, and departmental and school policies are interpretations of these values shared at the broadest national level and translated into practice through behavioral objectives.


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