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Disease Research Centre Ground Floor Floor 1: Disease Floor 2: Antibodies & Antigens Floor 3: Shark Antibodies Floor 4: Camel Antibodies Ground Floor.

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Presentation on theme: "Disease Research Centre Ground Floor Floor 1: Disease Floor 2: Antibodies & Antigens Floor 3: Shark Antibodies Floor 4: Camel Antibodies Ground Floor."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Disease Research Centre

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4 Ground Floor

5 Floor 1: Disease Floor 2: Antibodies & Antigens Floor 3: Shark Antibodies Floor 4: Camel Antibodies Ground Floor

6 Disease Malaria Cancer

7 To Malaria Cycle Gallery What Is Malaria? Treatment?

8 What Is Malaria? Malaria is the infection of the liver and red blood cells. The disease is caused by microscopic parasites. There are five types of parasites that cause Malaria. Malaria is found in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. It is mainly found in South Africa, Central and South America, Asia and the Indo- Pacific regions. Malaria is a serious mosquito transmitted disease. Over half a million people die each year and about 90% of these deaths are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium Ovale Plasmodium Malariae Plasmodium Knowlesi Plasmodium Vivax Plasmodium Falciparum There are six stages of the malaria transmitting and developing. Firstly the infected mosquito bites a human passing on the disease to the human. The parasite takes around thirty minutes to travel to the live. Once the malaria parasite reaches the liver it starts to multiply and reproduce. Noticing any symptoms usually start 9-14 days after the bite. Once the disease activates it goes into the blood stream and enters the red blood cells, reproducing and multiplying even more. Once the disease is in the red blood cells, these blood cells burst infecting other surrounding blood cells. After the release of the disease, the malaria parasite keeps travelling through the blood stream waiting for other mosquitos to carry the disease to pass it on to other people. People with Malaria usually suffer from: Headache Sweating Chills Nausea Vomiting Pain in joints and muscles Other symptoms that cause death or severe pain include. Seizures Confusion Kidney failure Breathing difficulty Coma

9 Treatment There are many ways to treat malaria but there are many factors that change what treatment is used. These factors include; what type of parasite has infected you, where the infection started, the severity of the symptoms the age of the patient, if the patient has any drug allergies and if there are any other medications taken by the patient. The person can either take oral medication or they can also use drugs to stop further infection, this method is not always the easiest option. There are developing drug treatments being researched. People can take vaccinations or medication to help prevent malaria, they avoid going to really infected countries and choosing the time to go is also smart. For people who live in malaria infected places they can use bed nets for night times, longer clothing to prevent the bites, insecticides like aerosols and vaporizers.

10 What Is Cancer? Treatment

11 What Is Cancer? Cancer is a disease characterized by its unstoppable out of control cell growth. There are over one hundred types of cancer, each named after the initial cell that was affected. The disease harms the human body when the damaged cells reproduce and divide causing lumps to form of the tissue which are called tumours. Tumours can disrupt the function of the digestive, nervous and circulatory system and they can also release hormones that changes the bodies function. Cancer only occurs when the genes in the mutation of the cell make it unable to correct and fix any DNA damage or kill itself before further harm is done. Carcinogens are the substances that are responsible for the damage of the DNA, promoting or aiding cancer: Tobacco Asbestos Arsenic Radiation Gamma rays X-rays The sun Some compounds in exhaust fumes

12 Treatment The treatment used depends on the type of the cancer, the age, health status and any additional personal characteristics. Infected patients receive a combination of treatments, therapies and palliative care. Surgery If the cancer is not metastasized, which is the spread of cancer through organs, then it is possible to cure cancer completely by surgically removing it from the body. Radiation Radiotherapy cancer by focusing energy onto the cancer cells. This method causes damage to the cancer cells causing them to self destruct. This method Is also used for shrinking cancer cells. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is used to utilize the chemicals that interfere with the cell reproduction process. Chemotherapy targets any cell in the human body rapidly dividing. Side effects of chemotherapy include: Vomiting Hair loss Fatigue Nausea Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is aimed at the human bodies immune system to fight the tumour. Hormone therapy Some cancers have been caused by some hormones. Hormone therapy so made to alter the bodies hormone production so the cancer cells are killed or stop growing. Gene therapy Gene therapy replaces damaged genes with ones that stop the division of cancer cells.

13 Vaccine Immune System Human

14 What are Vaccines? Types of Vaccines

15 What are Vaccines? Vaccines are preparations that improves the immunity of the human body against any disease. A vaccine contains a weakened or killed version of the disease. The toxins or surface proteins on the microbe stimulates the body to recognise the vaccine as a foreign disease which results in the bodies immune system to destroy it and remember it so next time the human gets infected the immune system recognises it straight away and starts fighting it. Vaccines are not reliable for full protection from a disease. Sometimes the immune system fails to recognise the disease because of lowered immunity in general. Most vaccines have boosters after the initial vaccine these are to ensure full immunity

16 Types of Vaccines There are seven types of vaccines Killed Killed vaccines were previously virulent but have been destroyed with chemicals, heat, radioactivity or antibiotics Attenuated Attenuated vaccines contain the disease which has had its virulent properties deactivated. These vaccines stimulated a more durable immune response. Toxoid Toxoid vaccines contain inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than micro-organisms Subunit Only a tiny fragment of the disease can trigger an immune response. Some subunit vaccines may only have the outer proteins layer. Conjugate Some bacterias have polysaccharide coats that can be poorly immunogenic. But the outer coats can be linked to proteins to be recognised as if it were a protein antigen Dendritic cell vaccines Dendritic cell vaccines are vaccines that combine dendritic cells with antigens. This allows the antigen to be noticed by white blood cells therefore causing an immune reaction.

17 Antibodies What does it do To immune system gallery

18 Antibodies Human Antibodies Human antibodies (white blood cells) are a protective protein produced by different parts of the immune system to respond to the ill presence of a foreign substance known as an antigen. Antibodies recognize and latch onto the antigens to break them down and kill them. A wide range of substances are regarded by the body as antigens, including disease – causing organisms and toxic materials such as insect venom. The steps that are involved in destroying antigens are: The secretion of lymphocytes stimulates the B lymphocytes to divide by repeated mitosis. Mitosis is the division of a cell that results in two identical daughter cells. Each cell produced is an exact replica and recognizes and binds to the same antigen. These new cells differentiate into plasma cells, cells whose main function is to produce antibodies. The plasma cells secrete their receptors that recognize the antigen, which is now called the antibody. The antibodies mark the foreign substance and may either kill it directly or just make it easier for the other white blood cells to destroy it as described by Cells Alive. You are now known to be immune Read more: steps-antibody-production/#ixzz2Wj31XvD7http://www.livestrong.com/article/ steps-antibody-production/#ixzz2Wj31XvD7

19 Antigens What is an antigen Substance within the bodies that causes the immune system to react and produce antibodies It also may be formed within the body as toxins or tissue cells Antigens can make their way through the body in many different ways; the include Antigens that enter the body from the environment; these would include Inhaled macromolecules (e.g., proteins on cat hairs that can trigger an attack of asthma in susceptible people) Ingested macromolecules (e.g., shellfish proteins that trigger an allergic response in susceptible people) Molecules that are introduced beneath the skin (e.g., on a splinter or in an injected vaccine) Antigens that are generated within the cells of the body; these would include Proteins encoded by the genes of viruses that have infected a cell Aberrant proteins that are encoded by mutant genes; such as mutated genes in cancer cells

20 Shark Antibodie s

21 How They Work Accessibility

22 How they Work An antibody is a specialized protein which is created by the entrance of an antigen. Antibodies are major protection against infections and diseases. They are a part of the immune system and are shaped like a ‘Y’. The highest section of the antibody works to attach itself to the infection and by doing this binding to it and slowing down the process of the infection and possibly destroying it. The antigens are responsible for this process as they are substances which actually do most of the neutralizing. Shark antibodies may be described as small organisms which flow through the human body in search of a disease or infection. If one is found, they latch on like a key in a lock and heal them. Antibodies work to stop disease such as cancer, malaria and many others from occurring. A normal antibody is generally a ‘Y’ shape which works by connecting to a ‘foreign body’ at its tips. Shark antibodies however have a different shape. They are also 10 times smaller than a typical antibody. The antibodies unique posture and configuration allows it to bind toward cancer and malaria cells therefore slowing down the reaction and causing the cancer and malaria reaction to become less fatal. These antibodies have a unique structure which is extremely stable allowing it to be safe for all people to take orally including the elderly and the new born. Its stability makes it easy for even the elderly to break down, giving it the ability to fight diseases rapidly.

23 Accessibility Obtaining antibodies from sharks is an easy and painless procedure. The scientists inject the shark and get blood samples, then they humanize the blood samples and then they are ready for experimenting. Obtaining blood samples from a shark isn’t a reoccurring thing; scientist can clone the blood samples by adding them to bacteria and therefore expanding themselves and creating more antibody volume. If Mick Foley does however run out of antibodies he shall go to the aquarium and once again inject the Wobegong Shark which is living there. If global warming continues this will result to the heating of the ocean and the death of all marine life, here we will turn to the master of survival in hot weather, Camels as they also posses the same antibodies as sharks.


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