Presentation on theme: "Systemic Linguistics: Core Linguistics. words are signs signifier = form = morphology (phonology) signified = meaning = semantics (pragmatics) combination."— Presentation transcript:
analytic languages signal grammatical relationships by word position in the sentence (= word order) synthetic languages signal grammatical relationships by the shape of the words (=inflectional endings) 1500 years ago, English was much more synthetic than it is today. It has changed into a more analytic language
Morphology definition: morphology studies the smallest meaningful units, called 'morphemes' morpheme ≠ phoneme (pit vs. bit) morpheme ≠ word (blueberry, autobus) morpheme ≠ syllable (mo-ther)
types of morphemes: a) free morphemes: may occur on their own and are used freely according to the rules of sentence structure, for example 'boy', 'tree', 'church', 'go', 'leave', 'love'. b) bound morphemes (affixes): cannot usually stand alone but are attached to a free morpheme (= 'base'), e.g 're-', '-ed', '- s'.
morpheme, morph and allomorph morphemes are ideal abstract units, whereas the corresponding morphs can show some variation morphs are concrete manifestations of a morphome allomorphs are variations of morphemes /z/ in "dogs, beds" /s/ in "cats" /iz/ in "garages"
derivation: exceptions Cranberry morph(eme)s are bound morphemes which occur in only one derivation (or compound) but nowhere else: e.g. cranberry, inane, umpteen similar words (strawberry, inactive, thirteen) suggest that they are indeed morphemes cranberry morphs are relics of words which have died out in other uses
b) compounding definition: a combination two or more free morphemes German is notorious for long words (e.g. Weihnachtsbaumschmuckvertriebsorganis ationshandbuchverkäufer), compounds in English do not usually exceed two units
Endocentric compounds: the compound is an instance of the thing denoted by the last constituent (e.g. houseboat is a type of boat, boathouse is a type of house; a person who is seasick is sick) Exocentric compounds: the compound does not refer to an entity denoted by either constituent (a paleface is not a type of face, but a person who has a pale face)
examples of exocentric compounds: paleface, redskin, redneck, skinhead, bigfoot, pickpocket Copulative compounds: both constituents refer to the entity denoted by the whole compound. An owner-builder is both an owner of a house and its builder. e.g. singer-songwriter, bittersweet, deaf- mute
compounds need to be defined on several linguistic levels morphology (free morphemes) phonology (stress on the first element) semantics (unity)
minor word formation processes c) coinage: means the invention of totally new terms the most typical cases are invented trade names for a company’s product which become general terms for any version of that product (without initial capital letters) e.g. 'xerox', 'kleenex' or 'aspirin'
d) conversion: involves a change in the function of a word, e.g. when a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction or change) E.g. ‘to paper a wall’ (paper) or ‘a must’ (from the verb ‘must')
e) acronymy: acronyms are formed from the initial letters of a set of other words acronyms are pronounced as single words, e.g. 'NATO', 'RADAR', 'LASER' (unlike in the case of 'CD', which is an initialism)
f) backformation: means a special type of reduction process: a word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word of a different type (usually a verb) E.g. ‘donate’ (from donation), ‘babysit’ (from babysitter) and ‘televise’ (from television)
g) blending: means a combination of two separate forms to produce a single new term. Blending usually involves taking the beginning of one word and joining it to the end of the other word E.g. ‘smog’, ‘brunch’ and ‘modem’
h) clipping: means that a word of more than one syllable (facsimile) is reduced to a shorter form E.g. ‘bus’, ‘ad’ and ‘bra’
i) borrowing: refers to the taking over of words from other languages English has adopted a great number of loan-words throughout its history E.g. ‘yogurt’ (Turkish) and ‘alcohol’ (Arabic)