Whaddya Think? What do you think are the top ten printed words in English? List them… http://www.wordcount.org/main.php http://www.world-english.org/english500.htm
A Rose is a Rose…? What’s the Part of Speech (formal class) of: Bat Slide Plate Home Throw Inning Prototypically… Stretching it a bit…
Nouns Traditional Definition Person, place, or thing Linguistic Definition Tangible item or intangible concept
Verbs Traditional Definition Action & ‘State of Being’ words Linguistic Definition Convey action or state of being AND Carry grammatical information about tense (pres, past, etc) person (1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd ) Other… (to be discussed in later chapters)
Adjectives Traditional Definition Modify nouns & other adjectives Linguistic Definition Modifies a nominal or adjectival (really close to the traditional definition…) Modify: To change. To add information about. X
Get Some Exercise (2.2) Make three sentences using “model” Sentence 1 ~ “model” as a noun Sentence 2 ~ “model” as a verb Sentence 3 ~ “model” as ad adjective
Pronouns Traditional Definition Substitute for a noun Linguistic Definition Substitute for any Noun Phrase or nominal
Determiners Traditional Definition Usually only talk about articles (a, an, the) Linguistic definition signals a NOUN is on it’s way gives grammatical information about the coming noun Ø, a, an, the, some, few, much, many, this, that, these, those, my, Dave’s, etc.
Prepositions (& prepositional phrases) It was Mr. Plum After supper In the library With the hammer For the sweet revenge Think about it… How do prepositions appear in sentences? What purpose(s) do they serve?
Adverbs Traditional Definition Modify verbs, adjectives or adverbs w/ info about Time, Place, or Manner Answer: Where, When, Why? How? Linguistic Definition Modifies non-nominal items V, Adj, Adv, phrases, clauses, or sentences
Conjunctions Coordinating And, but, or, nor, so, yet, for Join two equal elements Words Phrases Clauses Subordinating That, while, because Make one element weaker…
Get Some Exercise (2.1) Identify the category of each word: Noun, Verb, Adj, Adv, Prep, or Pro “The market for audiobooks is very large.”
Some More Exercise Write a sentence containing at least one of each of these parts of speech: Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Pronoun, Determiner, Conjunction Show us the labeled sentence
Antidisestablishmentarianism What are the morphemes? Which are bound? Which are free? What does each morpheme mean?
Derivation The addition of a morpheme which causes the original word to change in meaning &/or grammatical category (anti-dis-establish-ment-arian-ism) anti = meaning change dis = meaning change ment= grammatical change (V N) arian= meaning change ism = meaning change
Inflection A morpheme which causes NO CHANGE in the original word’s meaning or grammatical category Noun _________, _________ Verb _________, _________, _________ Adjective/Adverb _________, _________
Now You Try… Word # of Morph’s Free/ Bound Deriv. / Inflect. Mothers Rebounded Unproductive
Treeing Word: Bugetarian Meaning: One who eats only bugs How I know Bug= “root -etary= having to do with -ian= one who does… (compare “vegetarian) Tree: Bug (root) -etary (N or Adj) -ian (N) (Noun) Noun
Combine Compound Mailman Beware Stress Greenhouse vs. Green House Overtime vs. Over Time Over Time… Day’s Eye Daisy
Shorten Clipping Omnibus Bus Zoological Garden Zoo Acronyms TV RADAR SCUBA
Blending A little of each Smoke + Fog Smog Ebony + Phonics Ebonics
Shift Midlife Crisis Change Jobs Wrap Hand Chair Lynch Sandwich
How They Rate Type1941-1991 (%) Compounding40 Affixation28 Shifting17 Shortening8 Blending5 Borrowing5 Creating<.05
Word Origin Exercise: Derive, Compound, Shorten, Blend, Shift Nicole Gibson, 26, took out six private loans to finance her education at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York. Like thousands of coeds across the U.S., Gibson was steered to private loans by her school's financial aid office and is now struggling to pay them off. Her monthly payments are $1,300 — almost exactly how much she earns each month as a graphic designer. With few places to turn to for help, Gibson contacted a number of lawyers to explore consolidation and payment-plan options, only to be told that nothing can be done.
Morphological Systems Isolating Each word is a free morpheme (Chinese, Vietnamese) Agglutinating Words take multiple bound morphemes (Turkish, Quechua, Swahili) Inflectional Meaning conveyed largely by inflection (German, Classical Latin)
More on Morphemes Rule governed Have creative potential Allomorphs 2+ ‘surface representations’ of single UR
For “Tomorrow” Exercises 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19 22, 23, 24, 26 Many exercises have multiple repetitions of the same skill. Do enough of each that you understand the concept… Read Chapter 3