Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Lexicon Word The formation of word Lexical change."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 LexiconWordThe formation of wordLexical change
2 1. Word 1.1 three senses of “word” 1.2 identification of words 1.3 classification of words
3 1.1 Three senses of “word”A physical definable unit: a cluster of sound segments or letters between two pause or blankThe common factor underlying a set of formsA grammatical unit
4 1.2 identification of words StabilityRelative uninterruptibilityA minimum free form
5 1.3 classification of words Variable vs. invariable wordsGrammatical words vs. lexical wordsClosed-class words vs. open-class wordsWord classes
6 2. The formation of wordMorphology：is a branch of linguistics, which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed.The two fields (p88)Inflectional morphology: the study of inflectionsDerivational morphology: the study of word-formation
7 2.1 Morpheme The minimal unit of meaning Morpheme is the smallest meaning-bearing unit.
9 Free morphemes: morphemes which may constitute words by themselves Bound morphemes: morphemes which can not be used by themselves, but must be combined with other morphemes to form words
10 Inflectional morpheme: a kind of bound morphemes which manifest various grammatical relations or grammatical categories such as number, tense, degree and case.e.g. workers, children; walking, walked; biggest ; John’sDerivational morpheme: a kind of bound morphemes , added to existing forms to create new words. There are three kinds according to position: prefix, suffix and infix.prefix: change meaning dis-; un-; mis-suffix: change part of speech -ly; -ness; -tioninfix: some languages also have infixes, affix morphemes that are inserted into root or stem morphemes to divide them into two parts.
11 2.3 Morpheme and honemeA morpheme is a linguistic abstraction; it is a concept. It needs to be represented in certain phonological and orthographic forms. Those forms are called morphs.In morphemic transcription, morphemes in the abstract notion are put between braces like / /.Allomorph: A morpheme may have alternate shapes or phonetic forms. The variant forms of the same morpheme are called its allomorphs.
12 3.1 Lexical change proper Major ways to create new words: Compounding DerivationBlendingAbbreviationClippingAcronymBack-formationBorrowingCoinage
13 Compounding: a process of combining two or more words into one lexical unit. blackboardgodfatherbaby-sitcross-cultural
14 Derivation: the process by which new words are formed by the addition of affixes to the roots or words.FinalizeWidenHospitalizeClockwise
15 Blending : a process of forming a new word by combining parts of other words. Smog (smoke + fog);Brunch (breakfast + lunch);Smaze (smog + haze);Telecast (television + broadcast);Motel (motor + hotel).
16 Abbreviation: a shortened form of a word or phrase which represents the complete form. TV(television)Dr(doctor)hr(hour)ft(foot or feet)
17 clipping: a kind of abbreviation of longer words or phrases telephone---phonememorandum---memoelectronic mail---high fidelity---hi-fi
18 Acronym: a word created by combining the initial letters of a number of words. UNESCO APEC Sars CD laserradar (radio detecting and ranging)Cf. Initialism: VOA BBC WTO
19 Back-formation: a process by which new words are formed by taking away the suffix of an existing word.televise (from television)donate (from donation)enthuse (from enthusiasm)
20 Borrowing: the taking over of words from other languages Loanwords: encore, coup d’etatLoanblend: ChinatownLoanshift: bridge (card game)Loan translation: almighty (from Latin omnipotens)
21 Coinage : the invention of a new word KodakCokenylonXeros frigidaire
22 3.2 Phonological change Changes in sounds lead to changes in form (1)vowel sound change: Great Vowel Shift in history(2)sound loss(3)sound addition(4)metathesis
23 3.3 Morpho-syntactical change Morphological changeThou, ye youThy your’s form “of phrase”Syntactical changeI love the not, therefore pursue me not.Ever and anon + now and then every now and then
24 3.4 Semantic change The change of meaning of a word Broadening NarrowingMeaning shift: a process in which a word loses its former meaning and acquires a new, sometimes related meaning.Class shift (conversion):Elevation and degradation
25 Homework Self-study guide Questions and Exercises 1,2,3,5,13 Further readingAdams,V An Introduction to Modern English Word-Formation.Dai Wei-dong, A New Concise Course On Linguistics For Students Of English Chapter 3 Morphology