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Chapter 3 Lexicon Word The formation of word Lexical change.

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1 Chapter 3 Lexicon Word The formation of word Lexical change

2 1. Word 1.1 three senses of “word” 1.2 identification of words
1.3 classification of words

3 1.1 Three senses of “word” A physical definable unit: a cluster of sound segments or letters between two pause or blank The common factor underlying a set of forms A grammatical unit

4 1.2 identification of words
Stability Relative uninterruptibility A minimum free form

5 1.3 classification of words
Variable vs. invariable words Grammatical words vs. lexical words Closed-class words vs. open-class words Word classes

6 2. The formation of word Morphology:is a branch of linguistics, which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed. The two fields (p88) Inflectional morphology: the study of inflections Derivational morphology: the study of word-formation

7 2.1 Morpheme The minimal unit of meaning
Morpheme is the smallest meaning-bearing unit.

8 2.2 Types of morphemes morpheme free: free root bound bound root root
affix inflectional derivational prefix suffix

9 Free morphemes: morphemes which may constitute words by themselves
Bound morphemes: morphemes which can not be used by themselves, but must be combined with other morphemes to form words

10 Inflectional morpheme: a kind of bound morphemes which manifest various grammatical relations or grammatical categories such as number, tense, degree and case. e.g. workers, children; walking, walked; biggest ; John’s Derivational morpheme: a kind of bound morphemes , added to existing forms to create new words. There are three kinds according to position: prefix, suffix and infix. prefix: change meaning dis-; un-; mis- suffix: change part of speech -ly; -ness; -tion infix: some languages also have infixes, affix morphemes that are inserted into root or stem morphemes to divide them into two parts.

11 2.3 Morpheme and honeme A morpheme is a linguistic abstraction; it is a concept. It needs to be represented in certain phonological and orthographic forms. Those forms are called morphs. In morphemic transcription, morphemes in the abstract notion are put between braces like / /. Allomorph: A morpheme may have alternate shapes or phonetic forms. The variant forms of the same morpheme are called its allomorphs.

12 3.1 Lexical change proper Major ways to create new words: Compounding
Derivation Blending Abbreviation Clipping Acronym Back-formation Borrowing Coinage

13 Compounding: a process of combining two or more words into one lexical unit.
blackboard godfather baby-sit cross-cultural

14 Derivation: the process by which new words are formed by the addition of affixes to the roots or words. Finalize Widen Hospitalize Clockwise

15 Blending : a process of forming a new word by combining parts of other words.
Smog (smoke + fog); Brunch (breakfast + lunch); Smaze (smog + haze); Telecast (television + broadcast); Motel (motor + hotel).

16 Abbreviation: a shortened form of a word or phrase which represents the complete form.
TV(television) Dr(doctor) hr(hour) ft(foot or feet)

17 clipping: a kind of abbreviation of longer words or phrases
telephone---phone memorandum---memo electronic mail--- high fidelity---hi-fi

18 Acronym: a word created by combining the initial letters of a number of words.
UNESCO APEC Sars CD laser radar (radio detecting and ranging) Cf. Initialism: VOA BBC WTO

19 Back-formation: a process by which new words are formed by taking away the suffix of an existing word. televise (from television) donate (from donation) enthuse (from enthusiasm)

20 Borrowing: the taking over of words from other languages
Loanwords: encore, coup d’etat Loanblend: Chinatown Loanshift: bridge (card game) Loan translation: almighty (from Latin omnipotens)

21 Coinage : the invention of a new word
Kodak Coke nylon Xeros frigidaire

22 3.2 Phonological change Changes in sounds lead to changes in form
(1)vowel sound change: Great Vowel Shift in history (2)sound loss (3)sound addition (4)metathesis

23 3.3 Morpho-syntactical change
Morphological change Thou, ye  you Thy  your ’s form  “of phrase” Syntactical change I love the not, therefore pursue me not. Ever and anon + now and then  every now and then

24 3.4 Semantic change The change of meaning of a word Broadening
Narrowing Meaning shift: a process in which a word loses its former meaning and acquires a new, sometimes related meaning. Class shift (conversion): Elevation and degradation

25 Homework Self-study guide Questions and Exercises 1,2,3,5,13
Further reading Adams,V An Introduction to Modern English Word-Formation. Dai Wei-dong, A New Concise Course On Linguistics For Students Of English Chapter 3 Morphology

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