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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Infancy: Physical Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Infancy: Physical Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Infancy: Physical Development

2 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 The head of the newborn child doubles in length by adulthood, but the legs increase in length about five times. Infants triple their birth weight within a year. Infancy: Physical Development: Truth or Fiction?

3 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Breastfeeding helps prevent obesity later in life. A child’s brain reaches half of its adult weight by the age of 1 year. Infancy: Physical Development: Truth or Fiction?

4 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 The cerebral cortex – the outer layer of the brain that is vital to human thought and reason – is only one-eighth of an inch thick. Native American Hopi infants spend the first year of life strapped to a board, yet they begin to walk at about the same time as children who are reared in other cultures. Infancy: Physical Development: Truth or Fiction?

5 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Infants need to have experience crawling before they develop fear of heights. Infancy: Physical Development: Truth or Fiction?

6 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Infancy: Physical Development Physical Growth and Development

7 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Cephalocaudal Development –Upper part of the head to the lower parts of the body Proximodistal Development –Trunk outward – from body’s central axis toward periphery Differentiation –Tendency of behavior to become more specific and distinct What are the Sequences of Physical Development?

8 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Weight doubles at about 5 months; triples by first birthday Height increase by 50% in first year Infants grow 4 to 6 inches in second year; and gain 4 to 7 pounds Growth appears continuous but actually occurs in spurts What Patterns of Growth Occur in Infancy?

9 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.1 Growth Curves for Weight and Height (Length) From Birth to Age 2 Years

10 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.2 Changes in the Proportions of the Body

11 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Growth impairment during infancy and early childhood Causes may be organic or non-organic –Biologically based or non-biologically based Links to physical, cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems Deficiencies in caregiver-child interaction may play a role Canalization – catch up growth once FTT is resolved What is Failure to Thrive?

12 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Infants require breast milk or iron fortified formula Solid foods may be introduced about 4 to 6 months –Iron-enriched cereal, strained fruits, vegetables and meats Whole cow’s milk delayed until 9 to 12 months –Teething biscuits in later part of first year What are the Nutritional Needs of Children?

13 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Build up variety of foods Avoid overfeeding or underfeeding Don’t restrict fat and cholesterol Don’t overdo high-fiber foods Avoid items with added sugar and salt Encourage high-iron foods U.S. Dept of Agriculture, 2000 Guidelines for Infant Nutrition

14 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Developing in a World of Diversity Alleviating Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM)

15 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Choice to breastfeed is influenced by –Attitudes regarding benefits for bonding and infant health –Fear of pain, unease with breastfeeding and public breastfeeding –Domestic and occupational arrangements –Community and familial support –Level of education Why do Women Bottle-feed or Breastfeed their Children?

16 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Advantages of breast milk –Conforms to digestion process –Possesses needed nutrients –Contains mother’s antibodies –Helps protect against infant diarrhea –Is less likely, than formula, to cause allergies Disadvantages of breast milk –HIV, alcohol, drugs and environmental hazards may be transmitted through breast milk –Physical demands on mother What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Breast Milk?

17 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Development of the Brain and Nervous System

18 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Basic unit of nervous system, receive and transmit messages Neurons vary according to function and location, but all contain –Cell Body –Dendrites –Axon Neurotransmitters What are Neurons?

19 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.3 Anatomy of a Neuron

20 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 As child matures –Axons grow in length –Dendrites and axon terminals proliferate –Connection networks become more complex Myelin Sheaths –Makes messages more efficient –Myelination occurs with maturation –Inhibition of myelination results in disease How do Neurons Develop?

21 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Command center of organism –Brain of neonate weighs less than one pound –By first birthday, the brain triples in weight, reaching nearly 70% of adult weight What is the Brain?

22 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.4 Growth of Body Systems as a Percentage of Total Postnatal Growth

23 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Medulla –Controls basic body functions - heartbeat, respiration Cerebellum –Maintains balance, control motor behavior, coordinate eye movements with body sensations Cerebrum –Allows human learning, thought, memory and language Structures of the Brain

24 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.5 Structures of the Brain

25 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Growth Spurts in Brain Development –Prenatal – fourth and fifth months Proliferation of neurons –Prenatal – 25 th week through 2 years old Proliferation of dendrites and axon terminals How Does the Brain Develop?

26 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.6 Increase in Neural Connections in the Brain

27 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Myelination –At birth brain areas well myelinated include Heartbeat and respiration Sleeping and arousal Reflex activity –Myelination of sensory areas Hearing – begins about 6 th month of pregnancy and continues to age 4 Vision – begins shortly before full term but develop rapidly Brain Development in Infancy

28 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Brain development is affected by maturation (nature) and sensory stimulation and motor activity (nurture) –Rats in enriched environment More dendrites and axon terminals –Human infants have more neural connections than adults If activated by experience, connection survives If not activated, connection does not survive How do Nature and Nurture Affect the Development of the Brain?

29 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Motor Development

30 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Developments in the activity of muscles, and is connected with changes in posture, movement, and coordination Follows cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns –Lifting and holding head before torso –Voluntary reaching –Locomotion Sequence: rolling over, sitting up, crawling, creeping, walking, running What is Motor Development?

31 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 What is Motor Development?

32 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Maturation (nature) –Myelination and differentiation is needed for certain voluntary motor activities Experience (nurture) –Experimentation to achieve milestones –Slight effect in training to accelerate motor skills What are the Roles of Nature and Nurture in Motor Development?

33 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Sensory and Perceptual Development

34 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Process of integrating disjointed sensations into meaningful patterns through perception Focus on vision and hearing –Most research is one these areas How do Sensation and Perception Develop in the Infant?

35 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Neonates are nearsighted –Greatest gains in visual acuity between birth and 6 months –By about 3 to 5 years of age, approximate adult levels Neonates have poor peripheral vision –Perceive stimuli within 30 degree angle –By 7 weeks increases to 45 degrees –By 6 months of age, equal to adult Development of Visual Acuity and Peripheral Vision

36 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Neonates attend longer to stripes than blobs –By 8 to 12 weeks, prefer curved lines over straight Infants prefer faces –Discriminate maternal and stranger faces –Prefer attractive faces –Pay most attention to edges What Captures the Attention of Infants? How do Visual Preferences Develop?

37 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.11 Preferences in Visual Stimuli in 2-Month-Olds

38 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.12 Eye Movements of 1- and 2-Month Olds

39 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Depth Perception –Develops around 6 months (onset of crawling) Research using the Visual Cliff –Gibson and Walk (1960) –Relationship between crawling and fear of heights How do Researchers Determine Whether Infants will “Go Off the Deep End”?

40 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.13 The Visual Cliff

41 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Perceptual constancy – perception of object remains stable although sensations may differ under various conditions Size constancy – perception of object’s size remains stable although retinal size may differ –Appears by 2 1/2 to 3 months Shape constancy – perception of object‘s shape remains stable although shape on retina may change –Appears by 4 to 5 months What are Perceptual Constancies? How do they Develop?

42 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 A Closer Look Strategies for Studying the Development of Shape Constancy

43 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Perceptual constancy – perception of object remains stable although sensations may differ under various conditions Size constancy – perception of object’s size remains stable although retinal size may differ –Appears by 2 1/2 to 3 months Shape constancy – perception of object‘s shape remains stable although shape on retina may change –Appears by 4 to 5 months What are Perceptual Constancies? How do they Develop?

44 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Neonates can orient toward direction of a sound –18 months locate sounds as well as adults By 3 1/2 months discriminate caregivers’ voices Infants perceive most speech sounds present in world languages –By 10 to 12 months, lose capacity to discriminate sounds not found in native language How Does the Sense of Hearing Develop in Infancy?

45 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Figure 5.14 Declining Ability to Discriminate the Sounds of Foreign Languages

46 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 A Closer Look Effects of Early Exposure to Garlic, Alcohol, and – Gulp - Veggies

47 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Neonates perception is largely passive Later, intentional action replaces capture –Systematic search replaces unsystematic –Attention becomes selective –Irrelevant information gets ignored Do Children Play an Active or Passive Role in Perceptual Development?

48 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Sensory changes are linked to maturation of nervous system (Nature) Experience also plays a role (Nurture) –Critical periods Newborn kittens with patched eye – become blind in that eye Nature and nurture interact to shape perceptual development. What is the Evidence for the Roles of Nature and Nurture in Perceptual Development?

49 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 What does research tell us about the sensory capacities of newborns, such as Carter and Aiden? Cite evidence from the video that supports this research in regard to vision and hearing. Lessons in Observation Sensation and Perception in Infancy

50 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Lessons in Observation Sensation and Perception in Infancy

51 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Discuss how the newborn’s capacities for vision and hearing are adaptive in the context of Carter’s initial interaction with mom. Infants have clear visual preferences. Discuss the visual preferences of infants in the context of the response of 2-month- old Giuseppina to the stimuli presented by Dr. Basow. What method is Dr. Basow using as a test of Giuseppina’s visual preferences? What other methods are commonly used to study infant sensory and perceptual capacities? Lessons in Observation Sensation and Perception in Infancy

52 Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus Chapter 5 Does the newborn’s preference for looking at faces more than at other objects indicate that form perception is innate? Why or why not? Lessons in Observation Sensation and Perception in Infancy


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