We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byEdwina Glenn
Modified about 1 year ago
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-1 Chapter 5: Physical Development in Infants and Toddlers MODULES 5.1 Healthy Growth 5.2 The Developing Nervous System 5.3 Motor Development 5.4 Sensory and Perceptual Processes
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-2 Module 5.1 Healthy Growth LEARNING OBJECTIVES Outline the important features of physical growth in infants and toddlers and how they vary from child to child. Describe how heredity, hormones, and nutrition contribute to physical growth. Summarize how malnutrition, disease, and accidents affect infants’ and toddlers’ physical growth.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-3 Features of Human Growth Follows the cephalocaudal principle. Muscles become longer and thicker. During the first year, a layer of fat is added. Cartilage is replaced by bone.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-4 Variations on the Average Profile Secular Growth Trends: generational changes in physical development. Average and normal are not the same. Average Height and Weight
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-5 Mechanisms of Physical Growth Heredity influences adult height. The pituitary gland secretes growth hormone. Nutrition is particularly important during infancy when growth is rapid. At 2 years, growth slows and kids become “picky” eaters.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-6 Challenges to Healthy Growth Malnutrition is especially damaging in infancy. Malnutrition needs to be treated with adequate diet and parent education. Many diseases that kill young children are preventable with vaccines, improved health care, and changing habits. After the first year of life children are more likely to die from accidents than from any other single cause.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-7 Module 5.2 The Developing Nervous System LEARNING OBJECTIVES Be able to draw a nerve cell and identify its major parts. Discuss how the brain is organized. Identify when the brain is formed during prenatal development and when different regions of the brain begin to function.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-8 Organization of the Mature Brain Neuron: basic unit of nervous system, specializes in transmitting information. Synapse: a gap or space between neurons. Cerebral hemispheres: right and left halves of the cortex. Frontal cortex: area of the cortex that controls personality and the ability to carry out plans.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-9 The Developing Brain Brain originates in neural plate. Brain regions specialize early (e.g., left hemisphere for verbal functioning; frontal cortex for emotion). “Flexible” or neuroplasticity of brain organization shown by children who recover from brain damage.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-10 Module 5.3 Motor Development LEARNING OBJECTIVES State how reflexes help infants interact with the world. Detail the component skills involved in learning to walk, and at what age infants typically master them. Describe how infants learn to coordinate the use of their hands and why most children begin to prefer to use one hand. Discuss how maturation and experience influence children’s acquisition of motor skills.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-11 The Infant’s Reflexes Newborns’ reflexes prepare them to interact with the world. Some reflexes are important to survival (e.g., rooting and sucking). Some protect the newborn (e.g., blink and withdrawal). Some are foundations for later motor behaviour (e.g., stepping reflex).
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-12 Locomotion Dynamic Systems Theory: motor development involves many distinct skills. Differentiation and integration of component skills (posture and balance, stepping, perceptual skill) is necessary. Source: Based on Shirley, 1931, and Bayley, 1969
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-13 Fine Motor Skills Reaching and grasping becomes more coordinated throughout infancy. Toddlers prefer to use one hand and this preference becomes stronger during the preschool years. Maturation is important: Studies of Hopi infants. Experience matters, too: African infants and training studies. Maturation, Experience, and Motor Skill
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-14 Module 5.4 Sensory and Perceptual Processes LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the sensory abilities of the newborn. State how well infants hear and how they use sounds to understand the world. State how accurate infants’ vision is and whether they perceive colour and depth. Summarize how infants integrate information from different senses.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-15 Smell, Taste, and Touch Even newborns can smell, taste, and feel. These skills are useful in recognizing their mothers and in feeding. Infants hear well, though not quite as accurately as adults. -Auditory threshold: the quietest sound that a person can hear. Infants’ can distinguish different sounds and use sounds to judge the distance and location of objects. Hearing
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-16 Seeing Acuity is 20/400 at birth but improves rapidly. Infants perceive colours by 3 or 4 months. Infants master perceptual constancies early. Many cues are used to infer depth. Edges & motion are used to perceive objects. Wavelength of Light
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-17 Perception of Objects Use of Motion to Perceive Objects Face-like Stimuli Infants’ Scanning of Faces
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-18 Integrating Sensory Information By 1 month, can integrate sight and touch. By 4 months, can integrate sight and sound. 4- and 7-month-olds can match facial appearance (boy or man) with sound of voice.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-19 Infant Watching Videos Time Spent Looking at Videos
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada5-20 Conclusions Nutrition is important for physical growth in children. The brain and nervous system develop throughout childhood through synaptic pruning and myelination. Infants are born with many reflexes while their locomotor skills progress through a series of milestones and reflect maturation and experience. Soon after birth, infants coordinate information from different senses (vision, hearing, smell, touch). They recognize by sight an object they have touched before and integrate what they hear with what they see.
Physical Development In Infancy Chapter 4 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized.
The First Two Years: Biosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood.
Growth During 1 st Year. Weight -Babies generally triple their birth weight in the first year -Slight weight loss after birth then a steady gain. -1 st.
Nurturing the Developing Brain in Early Childhood Lisa Freund, Ph.D. The National Institutes of Health The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of.
European Society for the Study of Cognitive Systems London 2005 THE CHILD AND THE WORLD Robin Allott.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.. 1 Learning About Children.
5 th Edition Copyright © Prentice Hall Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Psychological Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
Basics of Neuroscience James J. Messina, Ph.D..
How Do People Grow, Change, and Develop?. Pastorino/Doyle-Portillo Essentials of What Is Psychology? 1 st edition © 2010 Cengage Learning Nature-Nurture.
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 33 Nervous System Section 1: Structure of the Nervous System Section 2: Organization of the Nervous System.
AP Psychology Sensation and Perception Alice F. Short Hilliard Davidson High School Unit 3, Chapter 4.
Child Development Chapter 9 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005.
Conception A single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuses to form one fertilized cell. Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers.
Early Relationships: The Key Ingredient of Brain Development Presented by: Mary Ann Marchel, Ph D. University of Minnesota Duluth Unified Early Childhood.
1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2006.
Overview of the Aging Process Related Health Changes and Challenges.
BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR Chapter 3. Key Questions How do nerve cells operate and communicate? What are the functions of major parts of the nervous systems?
Chapter 4. Development Infant Toddler Preschooler Physical development Gross-motor development Fine-motor development Cognitive development Social-emotional.
BIOLOGY Topic Option E Topic Option E. Topic Outline Introduction and Examples of Behavior Introduction and Examples of Behavior Introduction and Examples.
2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Body Changes 4. Brain Development 5. Injuries and Abuse 6. Closing Thoughts.
The Babys First Year Physical Development. Learning Targets I can…. –Identify the most important milestones of growth & development during a babys first.
Nervous System Chapter 38 Pages Nerve Cell Neurons or nerve cells - receive, process, transmit information Glia - which assist neuron function.
Neurons Chapter 3. Axon The part of the neuron that takes information AWAY from the cell body.
Sensation and perception 6. Definitions Sensation The detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects Occurs when energy in the.
Life Stages. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT n Begins with birth n Ends with death.
The Development of Self-Regulation Stuart G. Shanker Distinguished Research Professor Director, Milton & Ethel Harris Research Initiative Coquitlam Summer.
The Nervous System The big picture: gathers and processes information, responds to stimuli, and coordinates the workings of different cells.
Biological functions of the brain are important to touch on, because talking about cognition and cognitive functions is relatively unexciting without.
Emotional Development. Module Objectives Chapter 9 Why do people have emotions? At what ages do children begin to experience and express different emotions?
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.