2Physical Growth and Development In Infancy Cephalocaudal & Proximodistal PatternsCephalocaudal sequence in which greatest growth occurs at top (head), working its way to neck, shoulders, middle truck, so on…Proximodistal sequence in which growth starts at center of body & moves toward extremities
3Development inside the womb and out Cepahalocaudal development – head to toeProximodistal development – inside out
4Physical developmentPrinciple of hierarchical integration – simple skills must be met before more complex skills can be achievedi.e., learning how to hold pencil precedes writingPrinciple of independent systems – different rates of growth within the bodyi.e., height and weight can be independent of each other
5Height and WeightInfants double their birthweight by four months of age, tripled it by their first birthday, & grow an inch a month during their first yearBy 2 years of age, infants weigh approximately 26 to 32 pounds & have reached about one-half of their adult height
9The Brain Child is born with 100 billion nerve cells Neuron - nerve cell that processes information at cellular level.Dendrites receive information from other neurons, muscle or glandsAxon transmits informationMyelin sheath speeds information transmissionAxon ends are the terminal buttons of the neuron
10The Brain’s Development Between 10 and 26 weeks, the neuron connections are generated at 250,000 per minuteFollowing this cells move to appropriate locations in brain in process called migrationFinally, they are ready for collecting & processing information, known as cell elaboration
11Early Experience and the Brain Scientific research on animals & humans who have suffered brain damage, tells us that brain produces trillions of cells in early development which cannot possibly be usedAnimals reared in richly-stimulated environments have more neuronal connections than those reared in restricted environmentsImplication is children who are given a rich environment very early on, will develop greater neuronal connections for later use There is some skepticism of this belief
12Marion Diamond’s research Maturation-genetic map – cannot alter thisHowever, this does not mean that environment cannot affect anything
13Marion DiamondDemonstrated that an enriched environment will increase cell weight and add to the number of dendrites on the neuronAn impoverished environment decreases cell weight, may lead to a loss of cells and the number of dendrites will be reduced (synaptic pruning)
14Neural plasticity and critical periods If the neural growth is inhibited, then development may not be achievedDoes not affect the person with sensitive periods, but critical periods it does
15Infant StatesStates of consciousness or levels of awareness that characterize individuals. Some states are:REM (rapid eye movement) sleepactive sleep without REMindeterminate sleepdrowsyinactive alertactive awakecrying
16NutritionGrowing research supports nutrition programs for infants which will supply needed nutrients for proper physical, cognitive & emotional developmentBreast/Bottle Feeding - While most experts believe that breast-feeding is nutritional better for infant presents problems for working momMalnutrition - Infants who are malnourished in their first year may suffer from marasmus wasting away of body tissues caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency leads to severe underdevelopment of child’s cognitive, physical & emotional growth
17Motor Development Gross and Fine Motor Skills Skills infant learns through muscle controlGross skills utilize large muscles for larger motor activities such as moving arms or legsFine skills involve more finely turned movements such as finger dexterity.
18Reflexes of children Rooting reflex – You can often stroke the baby’s cheek and see this reflex
19Eyeblink ReflexReflexive blinking that protects baby from bright lights and foreign objects.
20Sucking ReflexBabies instinctively begin to suck at objects placed in the mouth.
21Moro ReflexWhen the baby hears a loud noise or their head falls back, they may instinctively extend arms out, arch its back and bring arms toward each other as though they are trying to grab someone.
22Palmar and Plantar Grasp Reflex Palmar-Curling of the fingers around an object that touches the palms.Plantar-Stroke bottom of foot, curl toes
23Tonic Neck ReflexThe tonic neck reflex, or fencer response, is present at birthThis reflex usually disappears by 4-9 months.
24Babinski ReflexBabinski's reflex occurs when the great toe flexes toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly strokedabnormal after the age of 2.
25Sensory DevelopmentDiscerning faces - 1 month old babies appear to be able to distinguish mother’s face from stranger’s as long as they hear the mother’s voice as wellAt 3 months, baby appears to distinguish mother from stranger with face alone
26SightBabies are born legally blind with a vision of 20/600 – you need to be no more than 8 inches from their faceBy 6 months they are at 20/100 – you need to be at least a few feet awayBy 9 months they are at 20/60 – they can see you across the room
27By age two, vision will be about 20/20 For the first couple of months, babies will be able to distinguish patterns, but tend to respond to blacks and redsBy 5 or 6 months, babies begin to discern colorsA word about pastels
29HearingBy 1 month, babies can distinguish between the smallest variations in soundBy 6 months, they have developed the ability to understand and make all of the sounds necessary for their language structure
30TouchNewborns have a well-developed sense of touch and will, over time, come to use this sense a lotBabies will begin to explore their world using tactile sensations, which is why many of the toys for infants have different textures
31Smell 1-day-old infants can distinguish between some smells 1 ½-month-old infants can distinguish between the smell of their mother and that of a stranger (which is why people tell you to leave the baby with something that has your smell on it)
32TasteNewborns appear to prefer the taste of sweet and salty and dislike bitter-tasting thingsIt has been observed that during pregnancy infants will lick the placenta wall which may help to develop a sense of taste
35Visual Cliff Experiment 3-month-old babies would have their heartbeat decrease when approaching the “ledge”6-month-old babies would have their heartbeat increase when approaching the “ledge” – would not crawl across, although some did when mother prompted them to
36Depth PerceptionThree-dimensional vision does not develop until about 4 monthsBrain needs experience to develop 3-D visionCrawling builds 3-D vision.