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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings BIOLOGICAL PRESSURE Circulatory system, respiratory system and Aquatic systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings BIOLOGICAL PRESSURE Circulatory system, respiratory system and Aquatic systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings BIOLOGICAL PRESSURE Circulatory system, respiratory system and Aquatic systems

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biological Pressures Bladder pressure Hydrocephalus: Cerebrospinal pressure Glaucoma: Pressure in the eye Heart burn: Pressure in the gastrointestinal cavity

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings BLOOD PRESSURE The silent killer!!!!

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Blood Vessels and the Cardiovascular System Figure 15-1: Functional model of the cardiovascular system

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Pressure (BP): Measurements "Blood pressure" Systolic over diastolic About 120/80 mmHg Sphygmomanometer "Estimation of pressure" Korotkoff sounds

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Pressure (BP): Measurements Figure 15-7: Measurement of arterial blood pressure

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings More Blood Pressures: Pulse and Mean Arterial Pressures Figure 15-5: Pressure throughout the systemic circulation

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pressure Respiratory Respiration involves 3 processes 1)Ventilation/ breathing- bulk movement of air into and out of lungs 2)Gas exchange between air in lungs and blood 3)Gas exchange between blood and tissues

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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11 LungsLungs Alveoli- small air sacs Alveoli- small air sacs So numerous that the walls are little more than a succession of alveoli So numerous that the walls are little more than a succession of alveoli Alveolar ducts end into alveolar sacs- chambers connected to about 3 alveoli Alveolar ducts end into alveolar sacs- chambers connected to about 3 alveoli 300 million alveoli in each lung 300 million alveoli in each lung NO NEED TO SHAKE!!! NO NEED TO SHAKE!!!

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

13 Pleural Cavities Lungs are in thoracic cavity Lungs are in thoracic cavity Lungs are surrounded by pleural cavity Lungs are surrounded by pleural cavity Cavity lined with serous membrane called pleura- 2 parts Cavity lined with serous membrane called pleura- 2 parts Parietal pleura- thorax, diaphragm, mediast. Parietal pleura- thorax, diaphragm, mediast. Visceral pleura- covers surface of lung Visceral pleura- covers surface of lung Pleural cavity- between pleurae, filled with pleural fluid, lubricate and stick pleurae together Pleural cavity- between pleurae, filled with pleural fluid, lubricate and stick pleurae together

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings VentillationVentillation 2 phases of ventilation 2 phases of ventilation Inspiration- inhalation Inspiration- inhalation Expiration- exhalation Expiration- exhalation Due to changes in thoracic volume- changes in air pressure in lung Due to changes in thoracic volume- changes in air pressure in lung

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Changing Thoracic Volume Muscles of inspiration- diaphragm, external intercostals, others Muscles of inspiration- diaphragm, external intercostals, others Diaphragm- dome shaped muscle separating thoracic cavity from abdominal Diaphragm- dome shaped muscle separating thoracic cavity from abdominal Muscles of expiration- internal intercostals, abdominals Muscles of expiration- internal intercostals, abdominals

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

17 Pressure Changes Flow of air is governed by 2 principals Flow of air is governed by 2 principals 1)Changes in volume= changes in pressure 2)Air flows from high to low pressure- greater the difference, the faster the flow

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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20 Lung Recoil SA During quiet expiration- recoil of lungs and thoracic wall During quiet expiration- recoil of lungs and thoracic wall Lung recoil- due to elastic fibers and surface tension of fluid in alveoli Lung recoil- due to elastic fibers and surface tension of fluid in alveoli Two things prevent lung collapse Two things prevent lung collapse 1)Surfactant 2)Pressure in pleural cavity

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SurfactantSurfactant Mixture of lipoproteins produced by epithelium Mixture of lipoproteins produced by epithelium Forms a thin layer inside lungs Forms a thin layer inside lungs Reduces surface tension Reduces surface tension Reduces tendency of lungs to collapse Reduces tendency of lungs to collapse

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pressure There are three important pressure in respect to breathing: atmospheric pressure- the pressure of the air around us. At sea level the atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg, at higher altitudes the pressure is lower. intrapleural pressure- the pressure within the potential pleural space between the parietal and visceral pleura. Intrapleural pressure is always slightly below atmospheric pressure. This is called negative pressure because the elastic lungs are always tending to collapse and pull the visceral pleura away from the parietal pleura. The serous fluid, however, prevents separation of the pleural membranes. intrapulmonic pressure- the pressure within the bronchial tree and alveoli. This pressure fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during each cycle of breathing.

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange – partial pressure Diffusion of gases between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries Diffusion of gases between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries Does not occur in bronchioles, bronchi and trachea = dead space Does not occur in bronchioles, bronchi and trachea = dead space Diffusion is dependant upon the partial pressure of that gas Diffusion is dependant upon the partial pressure of that gas Partial pressure is very similar in concept to concentration Partial pressure is very similar in concept to concentration

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carbon dioxide Plays a vital role in pH balance Plays a vital role in pH balance CO 2 + H 2 O ↔ H 2 CO 3 ↔ H + + HCO 3 -

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical control Increase in pH = decrease in CO2 = decrease in ventilation = increase in CO2 = decrease in pH Increase in pH = decrease in CO2 = decrease in ventilation = increase in CO2 = decrease in pH Decrease in pH = increase in CO2 = increase in ventilation = decrease in CO2 = increase in pH Decrease in pH = increase in CO2 = increase in ventilation = decrease in CO2 = increase in pH

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aquatic system Gas solubility CO 2 higher solubility O 2 low solubility Temperature High temp – low solubility Low temperature – high solubility

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Metabolic functions How can we measure indirectly the rate of photosynthesis? How can we indirectly measure the rate of respiration?

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aquatic System Photosynthesis and Respiration Plants – higher rate of photosynthesis high concentration of DO and low dissolved CO 2 Plants – higher rate of photosynthesis lower concentration of DO and low dissolved CO 2 Global warming and partial pressures of gas


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