Presentation on theme: "Structure and Function"— Presentation transcript:
1 Structure and Function The Pulmonary SystemStructure and Function
2 LungsLung tissue weighs 1 kg and covers half a tennis court ( square feet)Lung tissue is times larger than the body’s external surfaceHold 4-6 liters of air.Unattached to ribs; suspended inside the pleural sacs.
3 Function Ventilation. Breathing (air in and air out) Respiration. Conduction.Movement of air through the pulmonary systemRespiration.Gas exchange (O2 and CO2)
4 Conduction Zone (humidify, filter) Nasal cavity and PharynxNose moistens, warms, and filters air; mouth does not.Larynx - voice boxEpiglottisValsalva maneuver
5 Conduction Zone (humidify, filter) Tracheaconducting tube (transports air)BronchiBranchescontains muscle, serves to dilate and constrictAnatomic dead space
7 Respiration Bronchioles Alveolar sacs (300 million) further branching Each alveoli is surrounded by a network or covering of capillaries.Almost forms a “sheet” of blood.At rest, a single blood cell passes by 2 or 3 alveoli in about 0.5 to 1.0 seconds
10 Respiration (gas exchange) Occurs through thin walls (0.3 micrometers)Diffusion of gases from high to low concentration.
11 Types of Respiration Pulmonary (external) Transfer of O2 and CO2 at the lungs.250 mL of oxygen is exchanged per minute at rest200 mL of CO2 is exchanged per minute at restThese numbers can increase up to 25 times during heavy exerciseCellular (internal) respiration - transfer of O2 and CO2 in the tissues.
17 PressureInspirationAir moves into the lungs due to a lower pressure inside the lungsExpansion of the rib cage and the lowering of the diaphragm increase the volumeAs the volume gets larger, the pressure becomes lower.
18 PressureExpirationAir moves out of the lungs due to a higher pressure inside the lungsConstriction of the rib cage and the raising of the diaphragm decrease the volumeAs the volume gets smaller, the pressure becomes higher.
24 Lungs and Exercise At rest, the blood is 97-98% saturated with oxygen Exercise, the blood remains 97-98% saturatedHealthy lungs do not limit a person’s ability to exerciseHowever, respiratory muscles need to be trained like any other skeletal muscle