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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University AN INTEGRATED APPROACH T H I R D E D I T I O N Chapter 17 Mechanics of Breathing

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings About this Chapter Structure and function of the respiratory pumps How gasses are exchanged with blood The role of pressures and surfactants in rate of exchange How respiration is regulated

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory System: Overview Lungs: exchange surface 75 m 2 Thin walled Moist Ribs & skin protect Diaphragm & ribs pump air PLAY Animation: Respiratory System: Anatomy Review

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory System: Overview Figure 17-2 b: Anatomy Summary

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functions of the Respiratory System: Overview Figure 17-1: Overview of external and cellular respiration Exchange O 2 Air to blood Blood to cells Exchange CO 2 Cells to blood Blood to air Regulate blood pH Vocalizations Protect alveoli

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Filter, warm & moisten air Nose, (mouth), trachea, bronchi & bronchioles Huge increase in cross sectional area The Airways: Conduction of Air from Outside to Alveoli Figure 17-4: Branching of the airways

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Key Gas Laws Reviewed Gas is compressible & flow  with  resistance Air is a mix of gasses, each diffuses independently

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Key Gas Laws Reviewed Solubility of a gas depends on: Partial pressure of that gas (example: O 2 =156 mmHg) Temperature Solubility in a particular solvent Water: solvent for life O 2 into water: 0.1 m moles/L (poor) CO 2 into water: 3.0 m mole/L (good) PLAY Animation: Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ventilation: The Pumps Inspiration Expiration Diaphragm Low energy pump Concavity – flattens Thorax: ribs & muscles Pleura: double membrane Vacuum seal Fluid-lubrication

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ventilation: The Pumps Figure a: Surfactant reduces surface tension PLAY Animation: Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory Damage & Diseases Pneumothorax ("collapsed lung") Fibrotic Lung Disease Emphysema Asthma NRDS

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory Damage & Diseases Figure 17-11b: Surfactant reduces surface tension

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Factors Affecting Ventilation Figure 17-2e: Anatomy Summary Airway Resistance Diameter Mucous blockage Bronchoconstriction Bronchodilation Alveolar compliance Surfactants Surface tension Alveolar elasticity

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lung Volumes: Spirometer Measurements Tidal volume: Inspiratory reserve Expiratory reserve Residual Vital capacity

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lung Volumes: Spirometer Measurements Figure 17-12: The recording spirometer

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lung Volumes: Spirometer Measurements Figure 17-14: Total pulmonary and alveolar ventilation

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Efficiency of Breathing: Normal & High Demand Total Pulmonary Ventilation (rate X tidal vol about 6 L/min) Alveolar ventilation (– dead air space – 4.5 L/min) Little variation [O 2 ] & [CO 2 ] Exercise- High Demand  Depth of breathing Use inspiratory reserve

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Efficiency of Breathing: Normal & High Demand Figure 17-14: Total pulmonary and alveolar ventilation

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Efficiency of Breathing: Normal & High Demand Figure 17-2 g: Anatomy Summary

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange in the Alveoli Thin cells: exchange Surfactant cells Elastic fibers Recoil Push air out Thin basement membrane Capillaries cover 90% of surface

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange in the Alveoli Figure 17-2 h : Anatomy Summary

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange in the Alveoli Figure 17-6: Ciliated respiratory epithelium

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Matching Ventilation with Alveolar Blood Flow (Perfusion) Mostly local regulation Low [O 2 ] in alveoli  vasoconstriction of arteriole Reduced blood flow at rest (lung apex ) saves energy High blood [CO 2 ]  bronchodilation

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Matching Ventilation with Alveolar Blood Flow (Perfusion) Figure 17-6: Ciliated respiratory epithelium

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary Diaphragm & rib cage are pumps for inspiration Alveolar surface exchanges O 2 & CO 2 with blood The gasses in air act independently & move down a pressure gradient Airway resistance can limit ventilation efficiency Typically ventilation matches blood perfusion via local regulators of vasodilation & bronchodilation


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