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REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST The Enlightenment American Revolution French Revolution and Napoleon Latin American Revolutions Unifications of Italy and Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST The Enlightenment American Revolution French Revolution and Napoleon Latin American Revolutions Unifications of Italy and Germany."— Presentation transcript:


2 REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST The Enlightenment American Revolution French Revolution and Napoleon Latin American Revolutions Unifications of Italy and Germany

3 The two eras known as the Renaissance and the Enlightenment are similar in that they both led to people doing two things: (1) Question the world around them (2) try to improve society

4 During the Scientific Revolution, scholars applied logic and reason; this inspired the Enlightenment thinkers to also use logic and reason as they came up with new ideas about economics and government

5 Baron de Montesquieu felt that too much power in the hands of one person always leads to tyranny; Rousseau agreed with this idea of too much power Montesquieu believed in separation of powers: dividing power among three branches of government Political Ideas of the Enlightenment

6 The Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed in individual freedom Rousseau believed that people are naturally good, but too much power corrupts them Political Ideas of the Enlightenment

7 John Locke said that the purpose of government was to protect citizens’ natural rights Locke believed that people are born with natural rights: rights to life, liberty, and property Political Ideas of the Enlightenment

8 Locke believed that a government’s power comes from “consent of the governed” (approval of the people) The English Bill of Rights (1689) The king cannot tax or overturn Parliament’s laws Protected freedom of speech The army cannot be used as a police force No excessive bail Political Ideas of the Enlightenment He argued that kings could be overthrown if they violated peoples’ rights

9 Voltaire argued for certain rights: freedom of speech and religion; he criticized intolerance, prejudice, and oppression Voltaire once said: “I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Political Ideas of the Enlightenment

10 English philosophe Thomas Hobbes believed that humans are naturally cruel, selfish, and hungry for power Because he believed people needed to be protected from themselves, Hobbes supported rule by absolute monarchs (like Louis XIV); he argued that only kings with absolute power could maintain order in society Hobbes would disagree with the political ideas of Locke and Montesquieu

11 To collect the new ideas of the Enlightenment and make them accessible, Denis Diderot created the first encyclopedia

12 Capitalism is an economic model based on private ownership of property and the goal is to make profits “Laissez-faire” (“hands off”) is the idea that the economy thrives when there is minimal government involvement in the economy and business

13 Some powerful monarchs known as enlightened despots listened to new ideas and tried to improve the lives of their citizens Impact of the Enlightenment: Kings

14 The policies of the enlightened despots were influenced by the writings of Enlightenment thinkers (such as Voltaire, Rousseau)

15 Enlightened despots improved the lives of their citizens: they favored religious tolerance, tax reform, reduced government spending, and legal rights

16 Salons were discussion parties held by Enlightenment thinkers in Europe; they discussed new ideas in culture, government, and economics

17 Music composers created new, elegant styles of music known as Classical Franz Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Beethoven Impact of the Enlightenment: Music

18 The storming of the Bastille prison in 1789 represented the beginning of the French Revolution

19 The French Revolution was started by the financial crisis in France, the unfair taxes on the Third Estate, the spread of Enlightenment ideas, and inspired by the success of the American Revolution

20 The French and Indian War ( ) England won the French and Indian War; France gave England all French lands east of the Mississippi River... …but the war left England with massive debts

21 To pay off war debts, Britain created a series of new taxes (such as the Stamp Act) for the American colonists The colonists were upset that the Parliament in England would pass laws and taxes without the colonists’ approval

22 Their slogan became: “No taxation without representation”, which meant that colonists believed that they should be able to vote on taxes and laws that affected them

23 The Declaration of Independence used ideas from the Enlightenment (especially John Locke) to explain why Americans were declaring independence The Declaration suggested that the government should protect the rights of its citizens

24 Like America’s Declaration of Independence, France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen also stated that the government should protect the rights of its citizens

25 France’s unequal social structure: the Three Estates They owned 10% of land in France but paid little in taxes to the government The clergy (priests) of the Roman Catholic Church made up the First Estate

26 They owned 20% of French land but were exempt from paying taxes The Second Estate was made up of rich nobles

27 This group paid 50% of their income in taxes The Third Estate made up 97% of the population and was mostly made up of extremely poor peasants

28 The members of the Third Estate, the French commoners, hated having no say in the government and having to pay all the taxes This cartoon shows the poor Third Estate carrying the burden of the First and Second Estates

29 During a meeting of the Estates-General (France’s government), the First and Second Estates voted to increase taxes on the Third Estate; King Louis XVI approved of the vote, which enraged the Third Estate

30 The American Revolution and French Revolution were important events in world history Both revolutions created new democratic governments based on the Enlightenment ideas of individual liberty

31 In 1793, King Louis XVI was arrested, convicted of treason, and executed by guillotine

32 In 1793, radical Maximilien Robespierre slowly gained control of the National Convention, France’s new government after the death of the king

33 When King Louis XVI was executed during the French Revolution, many European nations attacked France to keep revolutionary ideas from spreading

34 From 1793 to 1794, any French citizens who were accused of being disloyal to the new republic were executed Robespierre executed 30,000 “traitors” during an era known as the Reign of Terror (until he, too, was executed)

35 In 1799, a French military general named Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup d'état and seized power in France Similar to Robespierre, Napoleon took advantage of the chaos of the French Revolution to increase his personal power

36 Napoleon made a series of reforms to improve the government, economy, and lives for French citizens To fix the French economy, he introduced a fair tax system and created a Bank of France to regulate the money supply

37 In order rule France more effectively, Napoleon created a comprehensive set of laws called the Napoleonic Code This law code provided order, freedom of religion, and eliminated privileges by estates

38 In 1812, Napoleon made his greatest mistake and invaded Russia

39 Russia’s severe winters and the Russians’ “scorched earth” policy devastated the French army and forced Napoleon to retreat

40 The era after the fall of Napoleon was a conflict among conservative, liberal, and radical forces CONSERVATIVES CONSERVATIVES were usually wealthy land owners and nobles; they typically supported traditional monarchies LIBERALS LIBERALS were usually from the middle class; they supported Enlightenment ideas like limited monarchies and protecting citizens’ liberty RADICALS RADICALS were usually from the lower classes; they supported extending democracy to all citizens

41 After the fall of Napoleon in 1815, European leaders met at the Congress of Vienna to restore a balance of power in Europe

42 The Congress of Vienna was attended by conservatives from Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain, and France and was led by Austrian minister Klemons von Metternich Metternich and other conservatives wanted to restore powerful monarchies in Europe, disliked democracy, and feared the ideas of the French Revolution

43 In the class system of Latin America, rich and powerful White Europeans called “Peninsulares” were at the top of society

44 Peninsulares were at the top of society in Latin America

45 In 1791, Haitian slaves rose in revolt against their French rulers; Toussaint L’Ouverture became the leader of the slave uprising and helped free all the slaves by 1801

46 From 1811 to 1824, Venezuelan creole Simon Bolivar led an army of revolutionaries in the independence movement against Spain

47 Argentinean creole San Martín led the independence movement in southern South America

48 Enlightenment ideas spread from Europe to South America, which led to creoles fighting for independence from Spain and other European rulers

49 In Mexico, a poor but well educated Catholic priest named Miguel Hidalgo used Enlightenment ideals to call for a revolution against Spain

50 What is NATIONALISM?  Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a nation of people  It is a sense of national identity exalting one nation above all others  It can be defined as pride in one’s nation, and it can also be defined as the desire of an ethnic group to have its own country

51 ITALY and GERMANY: TWO DIVIDED NATIONS As of the early 1800s, the German and Italian people were DIVIDED into numerous small states. Germany and Italy would not become fully unified until 1871 GERMAN STATES ITALIAN STATES

52 GARIBALDI: UNIFIER OF ITALY Garibaldi, who always wore a red shirt in battle, named his forces the “Redshirts” Giuseppe Garibaldi wanted a unified Italy under a republic style of government

53 BISMARCK: UNIFIER OF GERMANY Otto von Bismarck was the Prime Minister of Prussia in the 1860s Bismarck’s goal was the unification of the German states under the leadership of Prussia

54  Otto was an advocate of realpolitik, “politics of reality”, where there is no room for idealism  As someone in favor of realpolitik, Bismarck was ruthless and saw using force, threats, and deceit as ways to achieve his goals BISMARCK: UNIFIER OF GERMANY

55 “BLOOD AND IRON”  In 1862, Bismarck makes his intentions known: “Germany will not be united through speeches and diplomacy, but through blood and iron.”


57 Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificent’s greatest accomplishment was establishing a stable government for the Ottoman Empire through the law code he created

58 By the mid-1500s, Suleyman the Magnificent was the most powerful king in the world; similar to kings such as King Louis XIV of France and Czar Peter the Great of Russia, he ruled with absolute power

59 Tokugawa Ieyasu During the time of Tokugawa’s rule, the actual power in Japan was held by the shogun, not the emperor

60 Nagasaki Bay Japan Deshima Dutch ships Very similar to Qing China, Tokugawa Japan’s policy with foreigners was one of isolationism

61 HAMMURABI’S CODE Babylonian King Hammurabi created the world’s first written code of law

62 Pax Romana Pax Romana During the Roman Republic, the Senate ruled; when they became the Roman Empire, emperors called “caesars” ruled with absolute power

63 The Justinian Code The “Justinian Code” was the legal system of the Byzantine Empire; it is considered important because it would serve as a model for future European legal systems

64 Absolute monarchs like Louis XIV of France and Peter the Great of Russia made all government decisions without the consent of their people; this is what made them “absolute monarchs”

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