Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment Introduction to the Age of the Enlightenment 18 th Century Europe England and France."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to the Age of the Enlightenment 18 th Century Europe England and France
WHAT DO YOU THINK THE LIGHTBULB REPRESENTS?
Defining the Enlightenment
l Age of Reason (18 th century Enlightenment) l Natural laws apply to government as well as science! l Rights to Life, Liberty, and Property l A FAIR society is based on REASON, not “Divine Right”
The Age of Reason Scientific Revolution convinced many European thinkers about power of reason Scientific method and reason led to discoveries about physical world Wondered if reason could be used to study human nature, society New generation of philosophers, 1600s Viewed reason as best way to understand truth Concluded reason could be used to solve all human problems This time of optimism now called the Enlightenment
THE ENLIGHTENMENT OCCURRED B/W Thinkers believed reason could be used to uncover the laws that govern human life Once the laws were known people could make society better Believed that reason was a much better guide than faith or tradition Reason is the “light” that reveals human error and showed the way to truth
What society worked best? Why were laws unjust? How did the universe operate? Was there a God? Was the Earth really 4,000 years old? Were there natural laws that governed people? Who had the power to rule? How did the human mind work?
Defining The Age of Enlightenment A period of intellectual exchange in Europe during the 18 th century Belief in the idea of “progress” A desire for political and social change
Defining the Enlightenment These thinkers believed that human reason could be used to combat ignorance, superstition, and tyranny and to build a better world.
Pair-Share For the Symbol Column, what would be THREE different ideas for symbols for the Enlightenment? Discuss and choose the one you like best. Draw it in.
Beliefs of the Enlightenment
Beliefs Belief in Progress –Through reason a better society was possible –through progress we would continue to expand our knowledge in the sciences Secular Outlook –More worldly view of life –church is continuing to lose power –questioning of all church beliefs Importance Of the Individual –own ability to reason –importance of the in society –Individual achievement
Beliefs Belief in the supremacy of reason over pleasure; conviction that humans could perfect society through the application of the intellect to human affairs Science takes its place for the first time
Beliefs Philosophes)The intellectuals of the Enlightenment (called Philosophes) believed: reason –The universe could be understood through reason natural laws –Everything in nature could be explained by natural laws— universal truths found through observation (Religion is not necessary to understand the world)
Beliefs progress –The belief in progress—the world can be improved upon & perfected natural rights liberty –People have natural rights— personal freedoms that allow people to enjoy liberty (no restrictions on speech, religion, or the economy)
Central Concepts of the Enlightenment Central Concepts of the Enlightenment A. The methods of natural science should be used to understand all aspects of life - through the use of REASON B. Discover the natural laws of human society as well as the natural world (“social science”) C. The idea of progress - The confidence in human power, human reason to improve society
Central concepts of the Enlightenment [cont] D. Rejection of superstition and tradition E. Tolerance and equality F. Deism - God does not intervene in the world through miracles; he created the world, and then removed himself from it
Pair Share Activity *a period of intellectual growth that led to the development of new ideas on society, government, philosophy, economics, and religion. *marks the beginning of the modern world. *Can be captured in the words of Immanuel Kant: “Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own understanding is therefore the motto of the Enlightenment.” Turn to your partner and discuss: What do you think this motto means? Does this motto relate to our world today? Why or why not?
Why do you think the man is naked, out in nature, and also working on geometry with the protractor?
Knowledge is Power! This year thus far we have learned about how the Catholic Church and Absolute Monarchs saw new ideas and education as threats to be suppressed. WHY? How does this tie in the Enlightenment?
Defining The Enlightenment Principal targets: Religion and the domination of society by hereditary aristocracy. In other words, the church and the state, who often worked hand-in- hand.
Major Enlightenment Ideas Every social, political and economic problem could be solved through the use of reason Governments are created to secure an orderly society Separation of powers is the best way to protect human liberties All men are created “free and equal” A free market should be allowed to regulate trade
Enlightenment Thinkers In republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing. ~Baron de Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws Bk. VI, Ch.2 The market price of every particular commodity is regulated by the proportion between the quantity which is actually brought to market, and the demand of those who are willing to pay the natural price of the commodity or the whole value of the rent, labor and profit which must be paid in order to bring it thither. ~Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations Vol.I, bk.1, ch.7 The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property. ~John Locke Second Treatise of Government ChXIX, “Of the Dissolution in Government”
Causes/Origins of the Enlightenment
Causes and Effects of the Enlightenment— America & Europe Causes –Religious Fanaticism –Witch trials –Beginning of a merchant class—aka bourgeoisie –Landed Aristocracy –Monarchies –Church & State united –Church = Truth Effects –Deism—”natural law” –Rise of merchant class—aka bourgeoisie –Science/Logic/Reason = Truth –Rise of philosophers –Revolution x 3 –The “perfect” society –Separation of Church & State –Democracy
Causes: Influence of the Ancients and Medieval Philosophers
Origins of the Enlightenment: Background in Antiquity The application of Aristotelian logic by Thomas Aquinas, Scholasticism, in the 13th century set the stage for the Enlightenment.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Ancients Used Logic to Defend Dogma Aristotle’s logical procedures were used to defend the dogmas of Christianity. Unfortunately for the Catholic Church, the tools of logic could not be confined to Church matters.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Renaissance From sciences, ideas of nature surfaced- –study not only gravity or the circulatory system, but also human behavior New sciences of psychology and politics were developed- –Social Sciences; political science, geography, sociology, history, civics, economics, etc… Advocates of Enlightenment claim governing laws dictate human nature, society and politics
The Enlightenment—Early Forms Renaissance Humanists (14 th & 15 th cent.) –Argued that proper worship of God involved admiration of his creation, notably His crown of creations: humanity. –Celebrating humans worships God better than gloomy priests who preached original sin and repentance Galileo Galilei (1632) –Used logic and observation to argue that earth rotates around sun –The Church (possessor of Truth) forced him to recant, objecting that Bible clearly stated that the sun moved through the sky. –Led to the advancement of science—Isaac Newton
Origins of the Enlightenment: The Renaissance Humanists In the 14th and 15th centuries, "humanists“ celebrated the human race and its capacities. They argued they were worshipping God more appropriately than the priests and monks who harped on original sin and asked people to humble themselves.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Renaissance Focused on Man’s Creativity Some of them claimed that humans were like God, created not only in his image, but with a share of his creative power. The painter, the architect, the musician, and the scholar, by exercising their intellectual powers, were fulfilling divine purposes.
Renaissance Thinker Michel de Montaigne (16 th Century) –Asked “What do I know?” –We have no right to impose other dogmas which rest on cultural habit rather than absolute Truth –New World = new cultures Morals may be relative –If we cannot be certain that our values are God- given, then we have no right to impose them by force on others –Popes and kings had no right to enforce adherence to particular religious or philosophical beliefs –Doubt is essential to science—test, challenge, ask—to get closer to truth. Authority is science’s enemy
Origins of the Enlightenment: Renaissance Challenged Church Authority In the 16th century, various humanists had begun to ask dangerous questions. François Rabelais, a French monk and physician influenced by Protestantism, challenged the Church's authority, ridiculing many religious doctrines as absurd.
Cause: Scientific Revolution
“If I have seen farther than others,” said Newton, “it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Who were the giants to whom Newton was referring? Could this be said of any scientific accomplishment? Explain. Origins of the Enlightenment: The Scientific Revolution 1 Giants were Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Yes, scientific discoveries give scientists a clearer understanding of how the world works. New discoveries lead to further questions for investigation and more discoveries.
During the Scientific Revolution, people began to believe that the scientific method allowed them to find answers to their questions As a result, new ideas began in areas outside of science: Especially criticizing absolute monarchy & think of new ideas about government
Scientific Revolution Leads to Enlightenment : European scientists using reason to discover laws of nature –Very successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for smallpox, etc. Early 1700’s: If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws? –Laws that govern human nature –Reformers begin studying human nature and societal problems
Cause: Economic Changes
Political & Economic Background –Wealth from Asia & Americas catapulted a new class of merchants into prominence, partially displacing the aristocracy whose power had been rooted in land ownership –These bourgeoisie had their own ideas about the world—main agents of change in the arts, government, and the economy –Naturally convinced that their earnings were result of their individual merit and hard work –Absolutist kings and dogmatic churches were the biggest obstacle to change for the merchant class
Origins of the Enlightenment: Economic Change During the late Middle Ages, peasants had begun to move from rural estates to the towns in search of increased freedom and prosperity.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Economic and PoliticalChange As trade and communication improved during the Renaissance, the ordinary town-dweller began to realize that things need not always go on as they had for centuries. People could write new charters, form new governments, pass new laws, begin new businesses.
Cause: Social Changes
Origins of the Enlightenment: Economic and Social Changes –Wealth from Asia & Americas catapulted a new class of merchants into prominence, partially displacing the aristocracy whose power had been rooted in land ownership –These bourgeoisie had their own ideas about the world—main agents of change in the arts, government, and the economy –Naturally convinced that their earnings were result of their individual merit and hard work –Absolutist kings and dogmatic churches were the biggest obstacle to change for the merchant class
Origins of The Enlightenment: Social Class Changes Most important, the middle classes—the bourgeoisie—were painfully aware that they were paying taxes to support a fabulously expensive aristocracy that contributed nothing of value to society.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Social Class Changes –They were naturally convinced that their earnings were the result of their individual merit and hard work, unlike the inherited wealth of aristocrats. –The ability of individual effort to transform the world became a European dogma, lasting to this day.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Social Changes— Impoverished Masses They were to find ready allies in France among the impoverished masses who realized that they were paying higher and higher taxes to support the lifestyle of the idle rich at Versailles.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Social---Role of the Aristocrats Interestingly, it was among those very idle aristocrats that the French Enlightenment philosophers were to find some of their earliest and most enthusiastic followers.
Pair Share Activity For the all the causes covered up to this point, review your Powerpoint and Reading Notes and make any corrections. Then come up with symbols for each of the causes and draw them.
Cause: Political and Religious Repression and Persecution
Origins of the Enlightenment: Political and Religious Repression The 17th century was torn by witch- hunts, wars of religion, and imperial conquest.
Religion Persecution The 17 th century scene: Dogma & Fanaticism –Witch-hunts and wars of religion –Protestants & Catholics denounced each other as followers of Satan –People imprisoned for attending wrong church –All publications censored by church and state –Slavery widely practiced, defended by religious leaders –Despotism of monarchs=“divine right of kings” –Any opposition was imprisoned or executed Reason and Logic had no room for these matters
Origins of the Enlightenment: Religious Intolerance Protestants and Catholics denounced each other as followers of Satan and people could be imprisoned for attending the wrong church or for not attending any.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Censorship All publications, whether pamphlets or scholarly volumes, were subject to prior censorship by both church and state.
Origins of the Enlightenment: Despotism The despotism of monarchs exercising far greater powers than any medieval king was supported by the doctrine of the "divine right of kings," and scripture quoted to show that revolution was detested by God.
Pair Share Activity For under examples, select one of the two following primary source quotes to write down and analyze with your partner. What is the philosophe saying in modern day English?
“The individual who persecutes another because he is not of the same opinion is nothing less than a monster.” –Voltaire
“If men’s minds were as easily controlled as their tongues, every king would sit safely on his throne, and government by compulsion would cease.” Baruch Spinoza 1670
Origins of the Enlightenment: Exploration and Slavery Slavery was widely practiced, especially in the colonial plantations of the Western Hemisphere, and its cruelties frequently defended by leading religious figures..
Origins of The Enlightenment: Exploration The Impact of Travel Literature a.Captain James Cook, Travels b.Literature on China
Diderot’s Views on Mankind Attacked slavery and colonialism- “We are a free people; and now you have planted in our country the title deeds of our future slavery. You are neither god nor demon; who are you, then, to make slaves? Orou! You understand the language of these men, tell us all, as you have told me, what they have written on this sheet of metal: 'This country is ours.' This country yours? And why? Because you have walked thereon? If a Tahitian landed one day on your shores, and scratched on one of your rocks or on the bark of your trees: 'This country belongs to the people of Tahiti' - what would you think?" (from Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage)
“Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains.” –Rousseau What are examples of things that are enslaving us…what aspects of society according to Rousseau? Give historical and current examples!
Five Key Ideas of the Enlightenment The five important philosophical concepts are 1.Reason 2.Nature 3.Happiness 4.Progress 5.Liberty
Five Key Ideas of the Enlightenment Urged the use of : –Reason: absence of intolerance, bigotry or prejudice in one’s thinking; beliefs should be rational and free of biases –Nature: natural laws exist w/out man’s creation; what was natural was good and reasonable; God is found in nature –Happiness: a person who lives by nature’s law finds happiness; argued against medieval notion that people should accept misery as part of life’s circle; Philosophes believed in well-being on earth –Progress: Philosophes believed individuals could seek perfection and in return, society seek perfection; looked at human being as capable of progress, making something better –Liberty: freedoms should not be merely granted, but expected; beliefs that we are born with liberties in nature
*Belief in logic and science. *Supported the application of the scientific method to all aspects of society. *Government should be based on reason. *It was a period of questioning---led to the development of Political Science. *Importance of education and knowledge: a)an understanding of human nature and how to apply that knowledge b)knowledge would conquer fear, superstition, and prejudice c)knowledge was key to improving society Reason
Truth can be discovered through reason (logical thinking). Reason= unbiased thinking – open to new ideas
Reason Enlightenment philosophers combined logic and reason Logic: formal logic is the process(es) by which an argument can be determined as valid or not. An argument is valid if the premises are all true, then the conclusion must also be true. –Example: All humans have heart. Tom is a human. Therefore, Tom has a heart. Reason: Enlightenment thinkers stated that it consisted of common sense, observation, and their own unacknowledged prejudices in favor of skepticism and freedom.
Reason Cont. *The greatest crimes are perpetuated in the name of religion and God. *A fair, just, and productive society absolutely depends on religious tolerance. *This means religious tolerance for all forms of Christianity and non- Christian faiths.
Reason Issues of the 17 th century scene that the idea of Reason attacked: Dogma & Fanaticism –Witch-hunts and Wars of Religion –Protestants & Catholics denounced each other as followers of Satan –People imprisoned for attending wrong church –All publications censored by church and state –Slavery widely practiced, defended by religious leaders –Despotism of monarchs=“divine right of kings” –Any opposition was imprisoned or executed Reason and Logic had no room for these matters
Denis Diderot - Encyclopédie 1766 “ All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings…” - Summarize & promote knowledge
*The belief that there were natural laws that govern the earth as well as man. *Focused on the scientific discoveries and use of reason to examine the world. *Deism---a religious philosophy that developed around the following concepts: a)an impersonal deity (God) b)God is found in nature. You do not have to attend a formal church. c)There is a common morality amongst humans that is seen in the similarities between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. d)It is a religion based upon REASON and not Faith. Nature
Nature Cont. e)Goal was to humanize religion. f)Rejected original sin. g)Attacked Christianity for the persecution of other religions and abuses of power. h)Believed society should exist without religious supervision. i)It was their job to discover how the world God created worked. j)Rejected traditions and superstitions.
Nature What is natural is good and reasonable Natural laws affect economics and politics just as natural laws guide science (ex: motion).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract, 1762 “The General Will” How could this fraudulent contract of government be made legitimate? “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer.”
Deism/Nature The word "Deism" is derived from the Latin word for God: "Deus." Deism involves the belief in the existence of God, on purely rational grounds, without any reliance on revealed religion or religious authority. Deists: –Do not accept the belief of most religions that God revealed himself to humanity through the writings of the Bible, the Qur'an or other religious texts. –Disagree with strong Atheists who assert that there is no evidence of the existence of God.
Deism/Nature Deists regard their faith as a natural religion, as contrasted with one that is revealed by a God or which is artificially created by humans. They reason that since everything that exists has had a creator, then the universe itself must have been created by God. Thomas Paine concluded a speech shortly after the French Revolution with: "God is the power of first cause, nature is the law, and matter is the subject acted upon.”
Growth of Deism/Nature Intellectuals believe in God but see him as a "watchmaker" Deists skeptical of organized religion –Catholic Church was attacked Deists struggle with personal standards Denial of providence (Voltaire) disputed by others (Pope, Rousseau) Denial of evil
“I have never made but one prayer to God, a very short one: ‘Oh Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.’ And God granted it.” “Almost everything that goes beyond the adoration of a Supreme Being and submission of the heart to his orders is superstition. One of the most dangerous is to believe that certain ceremonies entail the forgiveness of crimes. Do you believe that God will forget a murder you have committed if you bathe in a certain river, sacrifice a black sheep…? … Do better miserable humans, have neither murders nor sacrifices of black sheep.” God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
Example of Deism
*This was a time period of optimism. *Believed every man had the right to develop his full potential. *Focus on secular issues to make life better on earth.
Happiness Living by Nature’s Laws brings happiness. Happiness for all is possible.
*Guaranteed freedoms/rights that everyone should have like press, speech, religion. *Exploring the issues of equality amongst races and gender. *Exploring what is the best form of government and why. *Create a government that will help overcome human cruelty and violence by using its power to further social improvements. Liberty
Envied liberties of English (Glorious Revolution; Bill of Rights) Society could be set free through reason.
"The good of the people must be the great purpose of government. By the laws of nature and of reason, the governors are invested with power to that end. And the greatest good of the people is liberty. It is to the state what health is to the individual." - Diderot in L'Encyclopedie: Article on Government, quoted in Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence, Perennial, 2000, p370.
A SCIENTIFIC approach can lead to perfect humanity and science.
Progress *The belief that man can improve and perfect society through education and scientific advances. *Attack existing institutions and concepts of: a)absolutism b)Christianity c)views on how the world works *Belief in the importance of social reform *By mastering both natural and human sciences, man can harness the natural world for its own benefit and learn to live peacefully with one another.
Pair Share Activity Review all the five key ideas of the Enlightenment. Make any revisions to your notes. Compare your symbols with your partner and explain your choices. Of the five key ideas, which do you each think was the most important idea and explain why.
The Philosophes Bourgeoisie: well-educated middle class that emerged during era Philosophes: writers within this class –Advocated reason, science, education to build a stable and free society –Concerned with solutions to social problems
The Philosophes and Their Ideas France was the capital of the Enlightenment. Leaders of the Enlightenment were called “Philosophes”. Writers, professors, journalists, statesmen economists and social reformers. Came from both the nobility and middle class. Reason was to be used as a tool. Apply facts to experience to find the best way for society to operate. Secular movement; focus was not on an afterlife, but on this world and how it could be improved and enjoyed. Everything should be questioned to determine whether it made logical sense and served society.
The Philosophes Intellectuals who discussed ideas Used reason to explain their world Believed that reason could improve society Not satisfied with old ideas Believed in tolerance for all religions
The “Philosophes” The philosophes were French social critics in the mid- 1700s. Paris becomes the center of the Enlightenment during 1700s. Paris is home to salons – gatherings wherethinkers (philosophes) meet to discuss ideas. They valued reason, nature, happiness, progress, & liberty. Some philosophes worked to bring attention to problems in society. For example, Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria worked to reform justice system by calling for speedy trials and greater rights for criminal defendants.
The “Enlightened” Individual The Philosophe ► Not really original thinkers as a whole, but were great publicists of the new thinking CHANGE & PROGRESS! ► They were students of society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms.
What did the Philosophers Despise? Absolute Monarchs Land-Owning Nobles The Catholic Church’s Abusesf power
The Philosophes and Society Argued that a woman should be able to decide what is in her own interest and should not be completely dependent on her husband. Called for equal education for girls and boys. Believed that people were basically good. Argued that government controls should be minimal and should only be imposed by a freely elected government. Felt the good of the community should be placed above individual interests. Defended the principle of freedom of speech. Used wit to expose abuses and corruption. Opposed the slave trade and religious prejudice. MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT ROUSSEAUVOLTAIRE Thinkers called philosophes believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. 1
Political Thinkers of the Enlightenment The separation of powers is the best way to protect liberty. Each branch of government should serve as a check on the others. People are basically reasonable and moral. People have certain natural rights. A government has a duty to the people it governs. If a government fails, the people have the right to overthrow it. People are naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. People entered into a social contract, in order to live in an organized society. Only an absolute monarchy can ensure an orderly society. BARON de MONTESQUIEU JOHN LOCKE THOMAS HOBBES 1
Centers of the Enlightenment
Effects of the Enlightenment
The “Republic of Letters” –-- gathering of elites in the cities (salons) A. URBAN –-- gathering of elites in the cities (salons) --– cosmopolitan, worldly - music, art, literature, politics - read newspapers & the latest books B. URBANE --– cosmopolitan, worldly - music, art, literature, politics - read newspapers & the latest books –-- proper behavior - self-governed C. POLITENESS –-- proper behavior - self-governed
Reading During the Enlightenment ► - 80 % for men, 60 % women ► Literacy: - 80 % for men, 60 % women ► Books were expensive (one day’s wages) ► Many readers for each book ► - novels, plays & other literature - journals, memoirs, “private lives” - philosophy, history, theology - newspapers, political pamphlets ► - often censored by governments
Toleration & Religious Minorities out of political necessity, toleration of certain creeds began by 17 th cent. Louis XIV turned back the clock, persecuting Huguenots in the early 18 th cent. Austria - Toleration Patent of 1781 recognized Catholic public practice & granted right to private worship for Lutherans, Calvinists, & Greek Orthodox –in all other ways, Austrians were equal Toleration of the Jews remained the despised religious minority of Europe largest # of Ashkenazic Jews lived in Eastern Europe –restricted in movement –forbidden to own land or hold jobs –pay special taxes –subject to periodic popular wrath Sephardic Jews - had been expelled from Spain in 15 th cent. –settled in Turkish lands, also cities such as Amsterdam, Venice, London, & Frankfurt where they were free to work in banking & commercial activities –many philosophes denounced persecution, but still ridiculed Jewish customs –Austria: eased restrictions on Jews, but still own land or worship publicly
Impact/ Effects of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment birthed two revolutions imperative to Western Civilization: –American Revolution –French Revolution The Enlightenment created an outlet for intellectuals/educated to openly debate issues w/in society This era allowed for a greater sense of ‘universalism’ where peoples did not live for their own sake, but sought betterment for others
England v. France The English and French Enlightenments exchanged influences through many channels. –Because England had gotten its revolution out of the way early, it was able to proceed more smoothly down the road to democracy. –But English liberty was dynamite when transported to France, where resistance by church and state was fierce.
Enlightenment in America Meanwhile, across the Atlantic, many of the intellectual leaders of the American colonies were drawn to the Enlightenment. –Jefferson, Washington, Franklin, and Paine were powerfully influenced by Enlightenment thought. –The God who underwrites the concept of equality in the Declaration of Independence is the same Deist God Rousseau worshipped.
Why should we care? Because Thomas Jefferson totally ripped off of these guys! You remember that little paper he wrote? It was called The Declaration of Independence and signed on July 4, This paper summarized how the Enlightenment ideas influenced our American forefathers (Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison).
American Revolution The language of natural law, of inherent freedoms, of self- determination which seeped so deeply into the American grain was the language of the Enlightenment. Separated geographically from most of the aristocrats against whom they were rebelling, their revolution was to be far less corrosive than that in France.
Montesquieu’s 3 branches in Action
Enlightenment Ideas in America Natural Rights –life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness Separation of Power – legislative, judicial, & executive branches Social Contract Freedom of speech, press, and religion Purpose of Gov’t to serve the people System of Checks and Balances Capitalism Importance of Education Belief that science and eventually technology will solve most or all problems Idea of Human Rights Helping others---social services, etc….
Pair Share Activity Complete the Sum It Up Activity that is the last page of the graphic organizer packet. Some pairs will be sharing them as closure to the lesson.