Presentation on theme: "THE ENLIGHTENMENT. Essential Question: Why is the Enlightenment considered to be a turning point in World History? Learning Objective: What was the impact."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Question: Why is the Enlightenment considered to be a turning point in World History? Learning Objective: What was the impact of the Enlightenment on political and economic change?
The Enlightenment Definition: Period when a new kind of thinking arose. It involved the use of reason. Also known as the Age of reason – Three main ideas: Liberty, Tolerance, Rights – A belief that all mysteries could be solved using reason. – Less reliance on religion Questioning of religious ideas, traditions – Brought together ideas from the Renaissance and Scientific Revolution
Enlightenment Brought together ideas from Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution. – Secular outlook, look critically at society, seek truth using reason, test everything using standards of reason. Characteristic of Enlightenment: rationalism: truth can be arrived at solely by the use of reason = Age of Reason = Enlightenment. 1700’s groups of thinkers sought to apply scientific thinking to all aspects of life: they were known as philosophes.
The Enlightenment I.Political Enlightenment A.Enlightened Leaders: promoted ideals of tolerance, equal justice. Leaders believe their roles to be as servants. Frederick the Great – “I am a servant of the State”
John Locke One of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. Felt people had natural rights – Life, liberty & property Social Contract – Governments are formed to protect natural rights – An agreement by the governed on a set of rules by which they are governed. – Legitimate governments derive their authority from the consent of the governed.
Enlightenment Effects: This kind of thinking was powerful and led to: The American and French Revolutions both of which relied heavily on Enlightenment thinking: ex. “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” and “We the people”
VOLTAIRE Freedom of Speech –Wrote about inequality & injustice – Thought of himself as “enlightened” – “Free Debate and Inquiry, no prejudice” – Admired the English form of government and the ideas of reason and natural rights (John Locke) – Doubted the Christian religion – Wrote much against: prejudice, superstition, intolerance.
Montesquieu Spirit of Laws – 1748 –Discussed governments & praised Britain’s limited monarchy Separation of Powers Checks & Balances
ROUSSEAU Felt society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior –Believed government should be minimal
Denis Diderot ( ) ► All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings. ► We will speak against senseless laws until they are reformed; and, while we wait, we will abide by them.
Physiocrats Focused on economic reform
David Hume First form of skepticism He was a naturalist
Adam Smith ( ) British economist – Economic Liberty: Adam Smith Argued for Laissez faire governments: no government interference in the economy: free market Published: The Wealth of Nations, in a.Allow businesses to operate with little or not government interference. b.A free economy could produce far more than one regulated by governmental laws. Relied on his 3 natural laws of economics.
Enlightened Leaders Promoted ideals of tolerance, equal justice. Leaders believe their roles to be as servants. Frederick the Great – “I am a servant of the State”
FREDERICK THE GREAT King of Prussia Admired Voltaire’s work Wanted to make reforms to make government more efficient - Reorganized civil service & simplified laws -Forced peasants to grow crops – Potatoes -Gave them tools and seeds -Tolerated religion - welcomed victims of religious persecution
CATHERINE THE GREAT Russia Admired Voltaire Made limited reforms in govt & law Did not intend to give up power Criticized serfdom & granted nobles a charter of rights Patron of arts, literature and education
JOSEPH II Hapsburg Emperor Traveled in disguise to find out the problems of his subjects “peasant emperor”
The Enlightenment France and England – France: Refused to progress. Would lead to French Revolution – England: Strong Parliament, strong banking system, broad tax system, found peace and prosperity