Presentation on theme: "THE ENLIGHTENMENT Scientific Revoltuion changed the way people in Europe looked at the world *** convinced educated people of the power of human reason****"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE ENLIGHTENMENTScientific Revoltuion changed the way people in Europe looked at the world*** convinced educated people of the power of human reason**** ***
2 Essential Question: Learning Objective: Why is the Enlightenment considered to be a turning point in World History?Learning Objective:What was the impact of the Enlightenment on political and economic change?
3 The EnlightenmentDefinition: Period when a new kind of thinking arose. It involved the use of reason.Also known as the Age of reasonThree main ideas: Liberty, Tolerance, RightsA belief that all mysteries could be solved using reason.Less reliance on religionQuestioning of religious ideas, traditionsBrought together ideas from the Renaissance and Scientific Revolution
4 EnlightenmentBrought together ideas from Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution.Secular outlook, look critically at society, seek truth using reason, test everything using standards of reason.Characteristic of Enlightenment: rationalism: truth can be arrived at solely by the use of reason = Age of Reason = Enlightenment.1700’s groups of thinkers sought to apply scientific thinking to all aspects of life: they were known as philosophes.
5 The Enlightenment Political Enlightenment Enlightened Leaders: promoted ideals of tolerance, equal justice. Leaders believe their roles to be as servants.Frederick the Great – “I am a servant of the State”
6 John LockeOne of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers.Felt people had natural rightsLife, liberty & propertySocial ContractGovernments are formed to protect natural rightsAn agreement by the governed on a set of rules by which they are governed.Legitimate governments derive their authority from the consent of the governed.
7 EnlightenmentEffects: This kind of thinking was powerful and led to: The American and French Revolutions both of which relied heavily on Enlightenment thinking: ex. “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” and “We the people”
8 VOLTAIRE Freedom of Speech Wrote about inequality & injustice Thought of himself as “enlightened”“Free Debate and Inquiry, no prejudice”Admired the English form of government and the ideas of reason and natural rights (John Locke)Doubted the Christian religionWrote much against: prejudice, superstition, intolerance.Eventually exiled for being outspoken about the government and church
9 Montesquieu Spirit of Laws – 1748 Separation of Powers Discussed governments & praised Britain’s limited monarchySeparation of PowersChecks & Balances
10 ROUSSEAU Felt society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior Believed government should be minimal
11 Denis Diderot ( )All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings.We will speak against senseless laws until they are reformed; and, while we wait, we will abide by them.
12 Focused on economic reform PhysiocratsFocused on economic reform
13 David HumeFirst form of skepticismHe was a naturalist
14 Adam Smith (1723-1790) British economist Economic Liberty: Adam Smith Argued for Laissez faire governments: no government interference in the economy: free marketPublished: The Wealth of Nations, in 1776.Allow businesses to operate with little or not government interference.A free economy could produce far more than one regulated by governmental laws. Relied on his 3 natural laws of economics.
15 Enlightened LeadersPromoted ideals of tolerance, equal justice. Leaders believe their roles to be as servants.Frederick the Great – “I am a servant of the State”
16 FREDERICK THE GREAT King of Prussia 1740-86 Admired Voltaire’s work Wanted to make reforms to make government more efficient- Reorganized civil service & simplified lawsForced peasants to grow crops – PotatoesGave them tools and seeds-Tolerated religion - welcomed victims of religious persecution
17 CATHERINE THE GREAT Admired Voltaire RussiaAdmired VoltaireMade limited reforms in govt & lawDid not intend to give up power Criticized serfdom & granted nobles a charter of rights Patron of arts, literature and education
18 JOSEPH II Hapsburg Emperor Traveled in disguise to find out the problems of his subjects“peasant emperor”
19 The Enlightenment France and England France: Refused to progress. Would lead to French RevolutionEngland: Strong Parliament, strong banking system, broad tax system, found peace and prosperity