2Objectives How did scientific progress promote trust in human reason? How did the social contract and separation of powers affect views on government?How did new ideas affect society and the economy?Identify the philosophies of major Enlightenment thinkers such as: John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Adam Smith.
3Scientific Revolution Leads to Enlightenment : European scientists using reason to discover laws of natureVery successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for smallpox, etc.Early 1700’s: If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws?Laws that govern human natureReformers begin studying human nature and societal problems
4Major Enlightenment Ideas Every social, political and economic problem could be solved through the use of reasonGovernments are created to secure an orderly societySeparation of powers is the best way to protect human libertiesAll men are created “free and equal”A free market should be allowed to regulate trade
5Enlightenment Thinkers VoltaireJohn LockeBaron de Montesquieu
6Social Contract Thomas Hobbes John Locke Humans are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish.To escape this “brutish” life people entered into a social contract.Only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society.Believed only an absolute monarchy could keep a society completely orderly.Humans are naturally reasonable, moral and goodHumans have natural rights: life liberty and propertyPeople form governments to protect natural rightsBest government was one with limited powerIf a government violates people’s natural rights, people have the right to overthrow government
7Separation of PowersBaron de Montesquieu: Criticized absolute monarchy and admired British governmentBritish protected themselves from tyranny by dividing powers of government between three branches: legislative, executive and judicial (misconception)Each branch of government should beable to ‘check’ the other twoWhat government does this sound like?
8Enlightenment and the Economy Physiocrats rejected mercantilism in favor of a policy called laissez faire.Physiocrats were Enlightenmentthinkers who focused on economic reformsLaissez-Faire: allowing business to operate with little or no government interferenceReal wealth comes from productive land not gold and silverSupported free trade and opposed tariffs
9Enlightenment and the Economy Adam Smith: Free market should be allowed to regulate business activityManufacturing, trade, wages, profits and economic growth are all linked to the market forces of supply and demandWhere there is demand, suppliers will seek to meet it because there are profits and economic rewards to be hadSmith supported laissez faire, but also believed that a government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works.His ideas lead to very productive economies during the Industrial Revolution (1800’s and 1900’s)
11Major Enlightenment Ideas for Society Detested the slave trade and slaveryDeplored religious prejudiceDefended freedom of speechAttacked divine right theoryUrged education for allHated unequal distribution of propertyBelieved governments should be freely electedWomen’s first duty was to her family
12Enlightenment Changes Society Women: Women were not equal and were criticized for attempting to gain equalitySalons: Men and women gather in living rooms to discuss Enlightenment ideas (chat rooms)Music: Ballets and operas become popular (Bach, Handel, Mozart)Art: Baroque gives way to rococo art (simple, elegant and charming)Literature: Novels become popular (Robinson Cruesoe)
13Enlightenment Changes Society Majority/Lower Class/Peasants: Slow to change and hurt the worstSerfdom disappears in the west, rises in the eastPeasants in Western Europe allowed to own or rent landAll peasants throughout Europe dealt with similar issuesForced into militaryLands could be torn up without compensation by nobilitySome peasants become eager for change, some resist change completely
14REVIEW QUESTIONSWho believed that people are naturally cruel and greedy?a) Montesquieub) Hobbesc) Rousseaud) VoltaireWhich of the following is true of the physiocrats?a) They rejected laissez faire in favor of mercantilism.b) They rejected mercantilism in favor of laissez faire.c) They rejected both mercantilism and laissez faire.d) They focused on social reform.
15REVIEW QUESTIONSWho believed that people are naturally cruel and greedy?a) Montesquieub) Hobbesc) Rousseaud) VoltaireWhich of the following is true of the physiocrats?a) They rejected laissez faire in favor of mercantilism.b) They rejected mercantilism in favor of laissez faire.c) They rejected both mercantilism and laissez faire.d) They focused on social reform.
16Enlightenment Thinkers The market price of every particular commodity is regulated by the proportion between the quantity which is actually brought to market, and the demand of those who are willing to pay the natural price of the commodity or the whole value of the rent, labor and profit which must be paid in order to bring it thither.Enlightenment ThinkersIn republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing.~Baron de Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws Bk. VI, Ch.2The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property.~Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations Vol.I, bk.1, ch.7~John Locke Second Treatise of Government ChXIX, “Of the Dissolution in Government”