2Section OverviewThis section focuses on society in early China, including the great religious and philosophical systems that were created.
3Terms to Knowsocial class: a group of people who share a similar position in societyfilial piety: the practice of showing respect to parents and older relativesConfucianism: Chinese philosophy that taught that people must do their duty to others to improve society
4Terms to KnowDaoism: Chinese philosophy that says people should give up worldly desires and turn to nature and the DaoLegalism: Chinese philosophy that taught that people are evil and need harsh laws to make them do their duty
5Life in Ancient ChinaChinese society had three main social classes: landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.Three Chinese philosophies, Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism, grew out of a need for order.
6Life in Ancient ChinaA social class includes people who share a similar position in society.Chinese society had three main social classes: aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.Aristocrats grew rich from farmers who grew crops on the land the aristocrats owned.
7Life in Ancient China Most Chinese people were farmers. Farmers paid aristocrats with part of their crops.Merchants were in the lowest class.They grew rich but were still looked down on by aristocrats and farmers.Chinese families were large, and children were expected to work on farms.
8Life in Ancient ChinaFilial piety means children had to respect parents and elders.Men were considered more important than women in Chinese society.Men went to school, ran the government, and fought warsWomen raised children and managed their households.
12Chinese ThinkersThree major theories—Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism—were developed to reinstate peace after the Period of the Warring States.Confucius was a great thinker and teacher, who believed that people needed a sense of duty to be good.Confucianism taught that all men with a talent for government should take part in government.
13Chinese ThinkersDaoism teaches that people should give up worldly desires and encourages the importance of nature.Legalism is the belief that society needs a system of harsh laws and punishments.The scholar Hanfeizi developed Legalism.
15Life in Ancient ChinaWhy did the aristocrats dislike Confucianism?According to Confucianism, any man with a talent for government should take part in government. This idea opened government up to the lower classes.
16Life in Ancient China Describe the concept of filial piety. Family members placed the needs of the head of the family above their own.
17Life in Ancient ChinaWhy did many aristocrats favor the philosophy of Legalism?It emphasized force and power and did not require leaders to show kindness or understanding to their subjects.
18Life in Ancient ChinaContrast How did Daoism differ from Confucianism?Confucianism encouraged people to work hard to improve the world, while Daoism taught that people should give up their concerns about the world and seek inner peace.