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1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1: Exploration and Expansion
Chapter Introduction Section 1: Exploration and Expansion Section 2: The Atlantic Slave Trade Section 3: Colonial Latin America Visual Summary Chapter Menu

3 How are the Americas linked to Africa?
The demand for enslaved Africans increased dramatically after Europeans began to settle in the Americas. The Cape Coast Castle in Ghana is one of the forts where enslaved Africans were held until ships arrived to take them to the Americas. This fort could hold about 1,500 slaves usually locked in dark, crowded dungeons for many weeks. Today, the Cape Coast Castle contains a museum that allows people to learn about slavery. In this chapter you will learn about the exploration of new lands and its global impact. • Why might people want to visit the Cape Coast Castle? • Does slavery occur in any parts of the world today? Chapter Intro

4 Chapter Intro

5 Chapter Intro

6 Exploration and Expansion
In what ways did European nations prosper through exploration in the fifteenth century? Chapter Intro 1

7 The Atlantic Slave Trade
How did European expansion and the slave trade affect the people of Africa? Chapter Intro 2

8 Colonial Latin America
How did Portugal and Spain profit from their colonies in Latin America? Chapter Intro 3

9 Chapter Preview-End

10 The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries Europeans began exploring the world in the 1400s, and several nations experienced economic heights through worldwide trade. Section 1-Main Idea

11 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary conquistadors encomienda
Columbian Exchange Academic Vocabulary overseas percent Section 1-Key Terms

12 People and Places Hernán Cortés Portugal Vasco da Gama Melaka
Christopher Columbus Cuba Ferdinand Magellan John Cabot Amerigo Vespucci Montezuma Francisco Pizarro Section 1-Key Terms

13 Section 1-Polling Question
Do you think spreading religion is a justifiable reason for colonizing native peoples? A. Yes B. No A B Section 1-Polling Question

14 Motives and Means Europeans began to explore distant lands, motivated by religious zeal and the promise of gold and glory. Section 1

15 Motives and Means (cont.)
Five European powers, led by Portugal and Spain, engaged in an age of exploration. All rose to new economic heights. Motives for European exploration include “God, glory, and gold” Economic interests – Europeans wanted to expand trade and locate spices and precious metals. European Voyages of Discovery Section 1

16 Motives and Means (cont.)
Religious zeal – Explorers such as Hernán Cortés were interested in sharing the Catholic faith with native peoples. There was an increased desire for grandeur, glory, and the spirit of adventure. European Voyages of Discovery Section 1

17 What prevented Europeans from traveling overland to Asia?
A. There was a lack of technology. B. The Ottoman Turks controlled trade routes. C. The climate was too harsh. D. The pope forbade transactions with non-Christians. A B C D Section 1

18 A Race for Riches Portuguese and Spanish explorers took the lead in discovering new lands. Section 1

19 A Race for Riches (cont.)
Portugal took the lead in European exploration under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator. Portuguese ships traveled along the western coast of Africa, finding gold and other goods. Vasco de Gama traveled around the Cape of Good Hope, the southern tip of Africa, and landed in India in 1498. Section 1

20 A Race for Riches (cont.)
The Portuguese captured the important port city of Melaka on the Malay Peninsula, which enabled the Portuguese to control the spice trade that had been dominated by Arab traders. The Portuguese used seamanship, guns, and treaties to control the spice trade. However, they did not have the people, wealth, or desire to expand their empire in Asia. Section 1

21 A Race for Riches (cont.)
Christopher Columbus was an explorer who sailed for Spain. Columbus searched for a western route to Asia and landed at Cuba and Hispaniola in 1492. The Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and into the Pacific Ocean. Magellan is credited with being the first person to circumnavigate the globe. Section 1

22 A Race for Riches (cont.)
In 1494, Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, separating control of the newly discovered lands. John Cabot, a Venetian, explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England. The writings of Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine mapmaker, led to the use of the name “America” for the newly discovered lands in the western hemisphere. Section 1

23 Why did Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas?
A. To convert all native peoples to Catholicism B. To defend all new lands from England and France C. To divide control of the new lands D. To prevent non-Catholic nations from exploring the new lands A B C D Section 1

24 The Spanish Empire The great Aztec and Inca civilizations succumbed to the Spanish. Section 1

25 The Spanish Empire (cont.)
The Spanish conquistadors established an overseas empire in the Americas. In 1519 Hernán Cortés and his Spanish allies were welcomed into Tenochtitlán by the Aztec monarch Montezuma. The Spanish were expelled from the city one year later. When the Spaniards left, smallpox devastated the Aztec capital. The Spanish returned and captured the city, and the Aztec Empire was destroyed. Section 1

26 The Spanish Empire (cont.)
In 1530 Francisco Pizarro led an expedition into the Inca Empire. Like the Aztec, the Incas were no match for Spanish disease, guns, and horses. Pizarro established a new capital for the Spanish colony at Lima. The Spanish used a system of colonial administration called the encomienda system— the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers. Section 1

27 The Spanish Empire (cont.)
Spanish landowners could use Native Americans for labor in return for protection and converting them to Christianity. Native American political and social structures were torn apart and replaced by European systems of religion, language, and government. The exchange of plants, animals, and disease between Europe and the Americas is known as the Columbian Exchange. Section 1

28 Which of the following was sent from the Americas to Europe? A. Wheat
B. Horses C. Cattle D. Potatoes A B C D Section 1

29 European Rivals The Portuguese and Spanish found new rivals in the Dutch, French, and English for trading rights and for new lands. Section 1

30 European Rivals (cont.)
The Dutch formed the East India Company to compete with the English and Portuguese for the Indian Ocean trade. The Dutch also formed the West India Company to compete with the Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas. By the early seventeen century, the Dutch established settlements in North America such as New Netherland. Section 1

31 European Rivals (cont.)
In the 1600s, the French colonized parts of present-day Louisiana and regions of Canada. The English began to settle the eastern seaboard of North America and islands in the Caribbean Sea. In 1664, the English seized the harbor of New Netherland from the Dutch and renamed it New York. Section 1

32 Which European power colonized the region of Canada? A. England
B. France C. The Netherlands D. Spain A B C D Section 1

33 Section 1-End

34 The BIG Idea Human Rights European expansion affected Africa with the dramatic increase of the slave trade. Section 2-Main Idea

35 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary colony mercantilism
balance of trade subsidies plantations triangular trade Middle Passage Academic Vocabulary transportation primary Section 2-Key Terms

36 People and Places King Afonso Benin Section 2-Key Terms

37 Section 2-Polling Question
Do you think slavery still exists in the world today? A. Yes B. No A B Section 2-Polling Question

38 Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism
The slave trade increased as enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas. Section 2

39 Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)
The nations of Europe created trading empires and established colonies in the Americas and in the East. Colonies were an integral part of mercantilism, an economic theory based on gold and a limited amount of wealth in the world. Section 2

40 Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)
Colonies provided raw materials and markets for finished goods. To bring in more gold, nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade and export more goods than they imported. To encourage exports, governments granted subsidies and improved transportation systems. Section 2

41 Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)
Slavery had existed since ancient times, and African slaves served as domestic servants in Southwest Asia. The demand for slaves changed dramatically with the introduction of sugarcane. Labor was needed to work the plantations where sugarcane was grown. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s Section 2

42 Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)
Slaves became an important commodity in the triangular trade that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. As many as 10 million African slaves may have been brought to the Americas between 1500 and the late 1800s. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s Section 2

43 Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)
One reason for the high number of exported slaves was the high mortality rate, especially during the Middle Passage, the journey across the Atlantic Ocean. The slave trade devastated the population of African communities near the coastal regions. Some African rulers, such as King Afonso, protested but were ignored by African and European slave traders. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s Section 2

44 What caused the demand for slaves to increase?
A. The Treaty of Tordesillas B. The need to populate the Americas C. The introduction of sugarcane D. To maintain a balance of trade between Africa and Europe A B C D Section 2

45 Effects of the Slave Trade
The slave trade led to depopulation, increased warfare, and devastation for many African states. Section 2

46 Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.)
Effects of the slave trade in Africa: depopulated areas increased warfare loss of the strongest and youngest men and women Section 2

47 Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.)
Benin was transformed from a brilliant society into a brutal, war-ravaged region following the introduction of slavery. The use of enslaved Africans was widely accepted until the Society of Friends began to condemn it in the 1770s. The French abolished slavery in the 1790s; the English abolished slavery in 1807; and slavery continued in the United States until the 1860s. Section 2

48 B. French Revolutionary Society C. Society of Friends
Which group condemned slavery and began an anti-slavery movement in Europe? A. Beninnites B. French Revolutionary Society C. Society of Friends D. European Anti-Slavery Coalition A B C D Section 2

49 Section 2-End

50 The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries Portugal and Spain reaped profits from the natural resources and products of their Latin American colonies. Section 3-Main Idea

51 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary peninsulares creoles mestizos
mulattoes mita Academic Vocabulary labor draft Section 3-Key Terms

52 People and Places Brazil Juana Inés de la Cruz Section 3-Key Terms

53 Section 3-Polling Question
Colonies needed the support of a parent country to be successful. A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 3-Polling Question

54 Colonial Empires in Latin America
The Portuguese and Spanish built colonial empires in Latin America and profited from the resources and trade of their colonies. Section 3

55 Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)
In the 1500s, Portugal controlled Brazil, while Spain’s colonial possessions included parts of North America, Central America, and most of South America. The area of Central and South America became known as Latin America, and a unique social class system emerged. Colonial Latin America to 1750 Section 3

56 Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)
Colonial Latin America Social Order: Peninsulares: Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe; they held all important government positions. Creoles: Descendants of Europeans who were born in Latin America; they controlled business and land. Mestizos: The offspring of European and Native American intermarriage. Section 3

57 Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)
Mulattoes: The offspring of Africans and Europeans. Conquered Native Americans and enslaved Africans. Section 3

58 Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)
Europeans utilized the Native Americans as labor. They used the encomienda system and mita to sustain a viable labor force. Gold and silver from the colonies offered immediate wealth to the Europeans. Products, such as tobacco, sugar, and animal hides were traded to Europe in return for finished products. Section 3

59 Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)
To control their colonial possessions in the Americas, Portugal and Spain used governor-generals to develop a bureaucracy and carry out imperial policies. Catholic missionaries were also instrumental in converting and maintaining order within the colonial territories. The Catholic Church provided an outlet other than marriage for women. Many nuns like Juana Inés de la Cruz, urged convents to educate women on subjects beyond religion. Section 3

60 How did the Spanish and Portuguese monarchs control their colonial possessions?
A. By appointing Native Americans as local rulers B. By appointing Europeans to governor-general positions C. By maintaining a large army D. By paying tribute to the local Native American rulers A B C D Section 3

61 Section 3-End

62 EARLY EXPLORATION of West Africa, India, and the Americas
Motivated by religious zeal, gold, and glory, Europeans began to explore distant lands. The Portuguese sailed east around Africa to India. Spanish ships sailed west to the Americas. Spanish conquistadors seized lands ruled by the Aztec and Inca. Diseases introduced by Spanish explorers killed much of the Native American population. By the late 1600s, the Dutch, French, and English entered the rivalry for new lands and trade. VS 1

63 AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE of Europe, Asia, and the Americas
Before the new exploration, the primary market for enslaved Africans had been Southwest Asia. The demand for plantation laborers in the Americas greatly increased slave trade. Enslaved Africans were part of the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and Asia, and the Americas. In Africa, the slave trade led to increased warfare, depopulation, and the deterioration of society. VS 2

64 COLONIAL EMPIRES of Latin America
The Portuguese and Spanish profited from their colonial empires in Latin America. Peninsulares were the top social class, followed by creoles, mestizos and mulattoes, and finally enslaved Africans and Native Americans. Catholic missionaries spread across the Americas to try to Christianize Native Americans. VS 3

65 VS-End

66 Figure 1

67 Figure 2

68 Figure 3

69 Figure 3a

70 Select a transparency to view.
Chapter Transparencies Menu Chapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view. Chapter Trans Menu

71 Chapter Trans

72 Unit Timeline Trans

73 CnETrans

74 DFS Trans 1

75 DFS Trans 2

76 DFS Trans 3

77 conquistador a Spanish conqueror of the Americas Vocab1

78 encomienda a system of labor the Spanish used in the Americas; Spanish landowners had the right, as granted by Queen Isabella, to use Native Americans as laborers Vocab2

79 Columbian Exchange the extensive exchange of plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds, especially during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Vocab3

80 overseas movement or transport over the sea; land beyond the sea

81 percent a part of a whole divided into 100 parts Vocab5

82 colony a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control Vocab6

83 mercantilism a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century; it held that the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver Vocab7

84 balance of trade the difference in value beween what a nation imports and what it exports over time Vocab8

85 subsidy government payment to encourage or protect a certain economic activity Vocab9

86 plantation a large agricultural estate Vocab10

87 triangular trade a pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa and Asia, and the American continents; typically, manufactured goods from Europe were sent to Africa, where they were exchanged for enslaved persons, who were sent to the Americas, where they were exchanged for raw materials that were then sent to Europe Vocab11

88 Middle Passage the journey of enslaved persons from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route Vocab12

89 transportation means of travel from one place to another Vocab13

90 primary most important Vocab14

91 peninsulare a person born on the Iberian Peninsula; typically, a Spanish or Portuguese official who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to Europe Vocab15

92 creole a person of European descent born in the New World and living there permanently Vocab16

93 mestizo a person of mixed European and Native American Indian descent

94 mulatto a person of mixed African and European descent Vocab18

95 mita a labor system that the Spanish administrators in Peru used to draft native people to work in the Spanish landowners’ silver mines Vocab19

96 labor people with all their abilities and efforts Vocab20

97 draft to select for some purpose; to conscript Vocab21

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