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RECONSTRUCTION REBUILDING THE SOUTH AFTER THE CIVIL WAR.

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Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION REBUILDING THE SOUTH AFTER THE CIVIL WAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 RECONSTRUCTION REBUILDING THE SOUTH AFTER THE CIVIL WAR

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3 RECONSTRUCTION

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8 The period immediately following the Civil War is known as Reconstruction. During these years from , the Federal government focused on finding a way to bring the defeated Southern states back into the Union. Several different plans emerged and much debate raged on about who would control Reconstruction (the President or Congress)

9 Lincoln's Plan- “Know this!” Called Proclamation of Amnesty Based on the idea that the Southern states had never left the Union. – Pardons to Southerners who swore oath of loyalty to US. – Recognition of new state governments when 10% of those who voted in the 1860 election took an oath. – States must abolish slavery (13 th amendment) – Did not go into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.

10 Lincoln’s Assassination &Ford’s Theater

11 Petersen House-boarding house help! Across the street, a man was holding a lantern and calling "Bring him in here! Bring him in here!" The man was Henry Safford, a boarder at William Petersen's boarding house known today at the Petersen House. Petersen House The men carried Lincoln into the boarding house and into the first-floor bedroom where they laid him diagonally across the bed because his tall frame would not fit normally on the smaller bed.

12 Lincoln’s final hours…

13 Glass enclosed…

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15 Lincoln’s Tomb… LocationSpringfield, IL Built

16 Lincoln’s Assassination &Ford’s Theater President Abraham Lincoln Was Shot At Fords Theater By John Wilkes Booth

17 Andrew Johnson

18 Johnson's Plan-“Know this!” Vice President Andrew Johnson became president after Lincoln assassinated. Southern Democrat from Tenn. –White supremacist He intended to follow Lincoln's general plan: Write a new state constitution Ratify the 13 th amendment. Elect a new state government Repeal the Act of Secession(withdraw) all former Confederate leaders lost their right to vote.

19 Congress's Plan~ “Know this!” Radical Reconstruction 1867 Passed over President Johnson's vetoes Disband state government and set up military districts in the South Each state write a new constitution, guaranteeing black male suffrage (15 th amendment) Ratification of the 14 th amendment All citizens insured Equal protection under the law Anyone who was a former Confederate could not vote or hold office Under Johnson's plan former Confederates gained control right back and freedmen were denied the right to vote, bear arms were restricted to farm work (sharecropping)

20 Johnson’s He failed to consider Radical Republicans views in Congress. Recognized 4 states' government’s and was prepared to admit others He led efforts to block republicans' plans

21 Congress also creates… “Know this!” {both over Pres. Johnson's veto} 1.Freedman's Bureau –Educate and give financial support to recently freed blacks. 2.Civil Rights Act –equal opportunities for all citizens.

22 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Congress attempted to impeach by charging him with high crimes and misdemeanors over violating the Tenure of Office Act. House of Reps voted yes on impeachment charges Senate came within ONE vote of removing Johnson from office.

23 Ulysses S. Grant's Administration

24 Grant was an honest man, who ironically surrounded himself with crooked people However he had no experience political Friends used him to their own advantage – Treasury Department Scandal - involving railroads on a government collecting contract – Whiskey Ring - involved internal revenue collectors who had helped defraud the federal government of millions dollars of revenue taxes on Whiskey.

25 ADDITIONAL NOTES… PLEASE add the following to your notes.

26 Credit Mobilier Scandal The revelation of the congressmen who received cash bribes or stocks in Crédit Mobilier took place during the Ulysses S. Grant administration in 1872.Ulysses S. Grant The Crédit Mobilier of America scandal of 1872 involved the Union Pacific Railroad and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company. The scandal's origins actually go back to the Abraham Lincoln presidencyUnion Pacific RailroadAbraham Lincoln

27 End of Reconstruction Election of between Rutherford B.Hayes (R) and Sam Tilden (D) is filled with controversy. Hayes is declared the winner by a compromise! WHY?? The Republicans give in and end Reconstruction known as the Compromise of The Northern Military is removed from the Southern states. What Happened to the former slaves? Most poor white & black southerners go into farming “Know this!” Tenant farmers – Farmers who rent land from a landlord Sharecroppers – Farmers who paid rent by giving up a share of their crop.

28 Reversing Reconstruction Despite the North winning the Civil War, after the Union soldiers left and Reconstruction ended in 1877, the south reverted back to their old ways of living. A. Taking away voting rights ( 15 th amendment) 1. Poll taxes –pay to vote 2. Literacy test – prove you can read 3. Grandfather Clause – if your grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867 you were excused from poll taxes and literacy test.

29 ALL 3 PREVENTED FREEDMEN FROM VOTING- “Know this!” B. Jim Crow Laws -Called for segregation or separation of the races in public places (restaurants, hotels, trains, buses, & restrooms) C. South voted predominantly for the Democrats- known as the Solid South D. Black Codes – laws/rules to restrict the rights of blacks.

30 Propaganda posters…

31 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Separate but Equal Homer Plessy, jailed for sitting in a white section of a train car He was 1/8 black and 7/8 white, but under Louisiana law he was considered black and therefore had to sit in a colored car. He sued saying it violated the 5 th & 14 th amendments Lost all 3 times Supreme Court rule “Separate but Equal " as constitutional, legalizing segregation

32 Odds & Ends to Reconstruction Scalawags – White Southerners who sided with the Northerners. means "scoundrel" wanted South to rebuild as quickly as possible opposed slavery and secession Carpetbaggers – Northerners who wanted to exploit South’s post-war turmoil for their own benefit. Had mixed motives for supporting Radical Reconstruction Moral duty to help slaves business people who wanted to start new industries.

33 Secret Societies Most white Southerners had been taught since birth that black people were inferior. They found it difficult to accept the idea of African Americans voting and taking part in government. Blamed them for: High taxes Presence of Northern troops Some turned to terrorism and violence

34 Terrorism and Violence Ku Klux Klan- founded as a social club for confederate veterans, turned into violent terrorist organization. warned blacks not to vote. "persuaded" white Freedman's Bureau workers to quit their jobs

35 Terrorism and Violence

36 WARNING…

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38 If you think this type of behavior is done and over, think again…


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