Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction 1865-1877 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: WHAT WERE THE MAIN GOALS FOR RECONSTRUCTION? HOW DID LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATION CHANGE THE COURSE OF RECONSTRUCTION?"— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction 1865-1877 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: WHAT WERE THE MAIN GOALS FOR RECONSTRUCTION? HOW DID LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATION CHANGE THE COURSE OF RECONSTRUCTION? WHAT LEGISLATION (LAWS) CHANGES IMPACTED AFRICAN-AMERICANS DURING RECONSTRUCTION? HOW DID LEGISLATION AND RACISM LIMIT FREEDOMS FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS FOLLOWING THE CIVIL WAR? HOW WAS THE ECONOMIC CLASS STRUCTURE CHANGED BY THE CIVIL WAR IN THE SOUTH? Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tCIg_POrQv8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tCIg_POrQv8
Main Goals of Reconstruction Rejoin all states into the Union Rebuild the South Major Questions after Civil War 1. How to re-build the South? 2. How to bring Southern States back into U.S.? 3. How to bring former slaves into U.S. as free men and women?
How to bring former Confederate States back into the United States? Should people who fought against U.S. be allowed back as citizens or punished? What should be done about southern state governments that fought the U.S.?
How to bring former slaves into U.S. as free men and women? How would freed men and women be treated in the Southern States? What do you think were some of the major challenges faced by former slaves?
Rejoin all states into Union: Lincoln’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) 10% Plan Pardon to all but highest ranking officials When 10% of 1860 voters take loyalty oath & establish govt. then it would be let back in No more slavery This is 1863, war still going on & Lincoln does this without Congress – Lincoln strong President 1865 2 nd Inaugural Address Lincoln describes plan Lincoln Assassinated
Lincoln assassinated 4/15/1865 6 days after end of Civil War while watching a play John Wilkes Booth: assassin, Southerner angry at Lincoln Vice-President Andrew Johnson became President
Rejoin all states: Johnson 10% Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) Johnson: southerner, so goes easier on south Grants special pardons Southern planter class back in control of state governments Black Codes in south Angers Radical Republicans
Rejoin all states to Union: Radical Republican Plan (Congressional Reconstruction Believed south need be punished, concern of who going to lead Wade-Davis Bill Slavery abolished – note, this bill 1864 & before 13 th Amendment 50% rule: 50% of voters swear oath to union New State Constitutions written by non-confederate Southern states governed by northern generals with troops
WHAT LEGISLATION (LAWS) CHANGES IMPACTED AFRICAN-AMERICANS DURING RECONSTRUCTION? 13 th Amendment – frees slaves, makes slavery illegal 14 th Amendment – guarantees citizenship to all born or naturalized within the U.S. state governments could not “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.” 15 th Amendment – gives voting rights to all males Angers women cause excludes them from voting Freedman’s Bureau
Freedmen’s Bureau Lincoln starts March 1865 Assist freed slaves with food, housing, education, legal assistance Ex. of influence: Howard University Problems: Carpetbaggers: northerner, abolitionist go south to help but some take advantage Scalawags: southerners sympathetic to African Americans
40 Acres & a Mule During Reconstruction, ex-slaves were promised 40 acres of land and a mule. Unfortunately, the government never came through with their promise. During the riots in the 1960’s, people were overheard saying, “That’s for my 40 acres and a mule,” as they stole something from a store. Film maker Spike Lee’s company is called 40 Acres and a Mule.
Compromise of 1877 Ends Reconstruction Southern Democrats accept northern President and Federal troops leave south. Rutherford B. Hayes now President Southern conservatives back in power in south Slave owners back in power
HOW DID LEGISLATION AND RACISM LIMIT FREEDOMS FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS FOLLOWING THE CIVIL WAR? Black Codes: laws passed by Southern states to limit freedom of African Americans. Put in place during Johnson administration Ku Klux Klan: whites opposed to African Americans obtaining civil rights, esp. right to vote Used violence and murder Voting Restrictions: poll tax, literacy tests, grandfather clause Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws- laws that forced segregation Segregation: the legal separation of people of color in public places Separate hotels, rail cars, schools, libraries, parks, bathrooms Sit in separate parts of theaters and in restaurants Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court rules segregation legal Fair as long as “separate-but-equal” facilities provided
HOW WAS THE ECONOMIC CLASS STRUCTURE CHANGED BY THE CIVIL WAR IN THE SOUTH? Civil War eliminates slavery and destroys economy Whites needed someone to work the land and African Americans needed to work Sharecropping & Tenant Farming: blacks give crops, or cash for use of former masters land Debt: in either case African Americans become indebted to former masters Kept former slaves at lower economic status Slavery by another name
Potential videos to use American Experience-The Second Civil War-Reconstruction (PBS) Stop at 3:00 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tCIg_POrQv8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tCIg_POrQv8
Reconstruction 1865-1877 2 Major Goals of Reconstructions: 1. 2. Lincoln’s Plan (presidential reconstruction) Johnson Plan (presidential reconstruction): Lincoln Assassinated: Radical Republican Plan (Congressional Recon): Essential Questions: What were the main goals for Reconstruction? How did Lincoln’s assassination change the course of Reconstruction? What legislation (laws) changes impacted African-Americans during Reconstruction? How did legislation and racism limit freedoms for African-Americans following the Civil War? How was the economic class structure changed by the Civil War in the South?
Reconstruction 1865-1877 Freedmen's Bureau: 40 Acres & A Mule How was economic class structure changed by Civil War? Jim Crow Laws: Legislation Impacting African Ams. During Reconstruction: Compromise of 1877: