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 South “cotton kingdom” Plantation system  Slave labor Agricultural Anti-Clay’s “American System”  National Banking  Internal improvements  tariffs.

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Presentation on theme: " South “cotton kingdom” Plantation system  Slave labor Agricultural Anti-Clay’s “American System”  National Banking  Internal improvements  tariffs."— Presentation transcript:

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2  South “cotton kingdom” Plantation system  Slave labor Agricultural Anti-Clay’s “American System”  National Banking  Internal improvements  tariffs  North Manufacturing & factory system Used of immigrants for labor in new factories Pro-Clay’s “American System”

3  States’ Rights  Compromise of 1850 CA added as free state & other territory popular sovereignty & fugitive slave laws  Kansas-Nebraska Act Popular vote in territory on slave issue “Bleeding Kansas” Caning of Senator Sumner  Dred Scott v. Sanford—Slaves were seen as property  Republican Party & Election of 1860  Fort Sumter

4  Second Great Awakening  Abolition Movement: Frederick Douglass & Up from Slavery William Lloyd Garrison & The Liberator Sojourner Truth  Rebellions: Nat Turner: slave rebellion John Brown’s Raid  Women’s Rights Movement Seneca Falls Conference (Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton) Declaration of Sentiment of Rights

5  Compromise of 1850: CA admitted as free state No slave trade in DC Popular Sovereignty in Mexican Cession Stricter FSL  Kansas-Nebraska Act Slavery based on pop. Sov. Repeal Compromise of 1820  K-N Act: Proslavery supporters from Missouri poured into Kansas “vote early & often” Southerners won the election & created puppet government

6  Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts gave a speech “Crime Against Kansas” where he condemned pro-slave southerners & insulted a SC Senator  SC Congressman Preston Brooks retaliated by beating Sumner with a cane

7  Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Portrayed the evils of slavery by focusing on splitting slave families and the phys. abuse

8 NAT TURNERJOHN BROWN  Oct 1831 in VA  Turner was a slave who led a rebellion Resulted in 60 deaths Convicted and hanged  Body was flayed, beheaded and quartered  May 1856—led an attack & killed 5 men; escaped justice  1859—JB seized the Harper’s Ferry Killed 7 Most slaves unaware of JB and did not rise up in rebellion Found guilty & hanged

9  February 4, 1861—Confederate States of America was born  Fort Sumter was one of few Union footholds in the South  Confederates attacked and the fort fell out of the Union control RESULT: United the North; Virginia and other upper Southern states seceded *1863: West Virginia was created

10  Confederate States of America: Before Ft. Sumter:  South Carolina  Florida  Georgia  Alabama  Mississippi  Louisiana  Texas After Ft. Sumter:  Virginia  North Carolina  Tennessee  Arkansas  United States of America Maine Vermont New Hampshire Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Ohio Indiana Illinois Iowa Michigan Wisconsin Minnesota California Border States: Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware

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12  1 st major battle of war  IMPACT: North realized it was going to be a LONG & bloody war; South grew complacent and had trouble with deserters (felt the war was over)

13  Union military strategy to strangle the South by blockading its coasts  Control the Mississippi to cut of Confederacy in half  Sherman’s March to the Sea  Capture key cities in the South: Richmond, Atlanta, Charleston

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15  Lincoln’s declaration that freed enslaved people in the rebelling territory, but not slaves in the Union or Border States  CONFISCATION ACT: Union army could confiscate slaves as they invaded South on the basis they were “contraband” of war

16  Many Northerners felt it went too far; opposed fighting an “abolition war”  Abolitionists thought Lincoln did not go far enough; though some pleased  South accused Lincoln of trying to stir up a slave insurrection

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18  Standing in the way of full emancipation was the U.S. Constitution  Process was started on passing an amendment (passed after Lincoln’s death)  Simply stated: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”

19  After the E.P., hundreds of thousands of southern slaves walked away from slavery to seek protection from approaching Union armies.  200K African Americans fought in segregated regiments in the Union army and navy Ex: Massachusetts 54 th Regiment (Glory)

20  Turning Points 1. Vicksburg (Spring 1863): Union controlled most of Mississippi River & New Orleans. Grant began siege against city of Vicksburg. After 7 weeks, Confederates surrendered the city. Union now controlled Mississippi & cut TX, LA, & Ark. from rest of Confederacy 2. Gettysburg (July 1863): Lee took offensive leading an army into Maryland; 3 day decisive battle of the war; went back and forth b/t USA & CSA; Lee retreated & never regained the offensive

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24  Sherman’s March (Sept ‘64 to Feb ‘65): Started from Chattanooga to Atlanta to Savannah to Columbia & north; army of 100K destroyed everything in its path— everything the CSA could use to survive  IMPACT: broke the will of the South & its ability to fight on

25  Republican: Abraham Lincoln (i)  Democrat: Gen. George McClellan

26  Effects of blockade, Sherman, spread hunger in much of the South  Grant continued to outflank Lee’s army until they Petersburg followed by Richmond (April 1865)  Confederate army surrounded near Appomattox Court House in VA  April 9, 1865  Lee surrendered to Grant

27  April 14, 1865  John Wilkes Booth shot the Ford’s Theater Conspirator attacked Sec. of State Seward

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31  YEARS:  Attempt to achieve national reunification and reconciliation after the Civil War and improve life of former slaves  4 Questions to answer: 1. How to rebuild the South? 2. What would be the condition of the A-A in the South? 3. How would the South be integrated into the Union? 4. Who would control the process: Southern states, president or Congress?

32  Passing of the 13 th, 14 th, & 15 th Amendments were passed Outlawed slavery (13) Defined a citizen (14) Suffrage regardless of race or color (15)

33  Freedmen’s Bureau: to help the unskilled, uneducated, poverty-stricken ex-slaves to survive (social services, medical care, etc)

34  Southern states had to ratify the th Amendments Swear allegiance to the US Obey emancipation

35  Lincoln and Congress had varying views on what to do with the rebelling states: Lincoln: recognize a new state gov; 10% of ex- Confederate voters to pledge loyalty of the US and obey emancipation Congress: 50% ex-Confederate voters to pledge loyalty; iron-clad oath; saw CSA as “conquered territory” and subject to Congress’ conditions and wishes

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38  Election of 1876 Republicans nominate Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, not Grant Democrats choose Governor Samuel J. Tilden Tilden wins popular vote, 1 shy of electoral; 20 electoral disputed  Compromise of 1877—Hayes gets presidency, Democrats get: - federal troops leave LA, SC - funding for Southern railroad, waterways - conservative Southerner in cabinet Compromise means end of Reconstruction

39  Republicans fail to protect rights they gave to former slaves  Unwillingness to distribute land blocks economic independence  Amendments abolish slavery, give basis for civil rights legislation  African-American schools, civic groups increase literacy, opportunity


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