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Civil War Stew The following items are causes of the Civil War…

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Presentation on theme: "Civil War Stew The following items are causes of the Civil War…"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Civil War Stew The following items are causes of the Civil War…

3 Ingredient 1 – Uncle Tom’s Cabin A novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe About the evils of slavery Sold 300,000 copies –1852 North: Made them aware of slavery South: Abolitionist tool Lincoln: “So, you’re the little lady who started this war.”

4 Ingredient 2 – Tariff Disputes & Different Economies Tariffs = tax on imported goods North: Liked high tariffs – people bought American goods South: Liked low tariffs – didn’t want to pay more Different Economies = ways of making money North: Factories & Industry South: Plantations & Farms

5 Ingredient 3 – Missouri Compromise 1820 Plan to keep slave and free states equal – eleven free states/eleven slave states –If Missouri admitted as a slave state…upset the balance of power in the Senate Missouri admitted as a slave state Maine as a free state –Slavery not allowed north of southern border of Missouri

6 Ingredient 4 - KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT: 1854 Proposed by Stephen Douglas- Angered Lincoln Kansas- Nebraska Act -Allowed Kansas and Nebraska territories popular sovereignty about slavery –Popular sovereignty means control by the people. Voters in each new territory could decide for themselves about slavery. South pleased North angry Repealed the 1820 Missouri Compromise which prohibited slavery in this area.

7 Ingredient 5 – Bleeding Kansas Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act allowing the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide the slavery issue by popular sovereignty. Popular Sovereignty caused small scale war for 4 months – 200 dead –In Lawrence, a group of drunken, pro-slavery men destroyed homes and an anti-slavery newspaper. –In retaliation, abolitionists led by John Brown killed pro- slavery settlers on Pottawatomie Creek. Pro-slavery (Missouri) vs. Anti-Slavery (Kansas) Kansas becomes a Free state in 1861

8 Ingredient 6 – State’s Rights & Cultural Differences South: For state sovereignty –states deciding about slavery North: For national sovereignty –Nation deciding about slavery South: Farmers North: Industrialists & Businessmen

9 Ingredient 7 – Fugitive Slave Laws Fugitive Slave Act of If a slave is caught in a non-slave state, the slave had to be returned to owner. Fugitive slave laws were part of Northwest Ordinance and the Constitution

10 Ingredient 8 – Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave who lived with his master in Missouri, then in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. When Scott’s master died in 1857, antislavery lawyers helped him file a lawsuit arguing that, since he had lived in places where slavery was illegal, he should be free. Dred Scott v. Sandford was a landmark court case. Dred traveled with his owner to a free state and then sued for his freedom. Supreme Court ruled that since he was not a citizen, (slaves were property) he was not protected under the Constitution and therefore was not free. South was pleased North was outraged with decision

11 Ingredient 9 – Election of Lincoln Lincoln – First Republican President - (Northerner) House Divided against itself cannot stand. Democratic party split north and south on the slavery issue. December 20, 1860 –South Carolina seceded Within a few months, six more states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. Others soon followed for 11 total. –South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Virginia, and Tennessee

12 Confederate States v. Union States

13 Ingredient 9 – Election of A. Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation –freed the slaves – on January 1, 1863

14 Ingredient 10 – Firing on Fort Sumter Civil War begins when Confederate troops fire on a Union Fort (Fort Sumter) –April 12, 1861 Most people thought war would end in 3 or 4 months lasted 4 years:

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16 The War Ends… The South (Lee) surrendered –April 11, 1865 Lincoln assassinated on April 14, 1865 John Wilkes Booth - an actor

17 Original 13 States FREE STATES Pennsylvania New Jersey Connecticut Massachusetts New Hampshire New York SLAVE STATES Delaware Georgia Maryland South Carolina North Carolina Virginia Rhode Island

18 FREE STATES Pennsylvania New Jersey Connecticut Massachusetts New Hampshire New York Rhode Island SLAVE STATES Delaware Georgia Maryland South Carolina North Carolina Virginia Addition of New States 1791 to 1819 Vermont (1791) Ohio (1803) Indiana (1816) Illinois (1818) Kentucky (1792) Tennessee (1796) Louisiana (1812) Mississippi (1817) Alabama (1819)

19 Growing Regional Conflict Missouri Compromise Wilmot Proviso Compromise of 1850 Kansas Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas The Dred Scott Decision

20 Problems with Missouri In 1820, the addition of Missouri as a slave state upsets the balance of power in the Senate between slave and free states Henry Clay proposes a compromise Applies only to territory in the Louisiana Purchase With the exception of Missouri, slavery would be banned in all land north of 36º30'N and would be allowed in land south of 36º30'N Missouri entered as a slave state Maine entered as a free state

21 Wilmot Proviso Effort to outlaw slavery in any land won from Mexico in the Mexican War Passed the House in 1846 Defeated in the Senate Increased the tension between the North and the South

22 FREE STATES Pennsylvania New Jersey Connecticut Massachusetts New Hampshire New York Rhode Island Vermont (1791) Ohio (1803) Indiana (1816) Illinois (1818) SLAVE STATES Delaware Georgia * Maryland South Carolina * North Carolina * Virginia * Kentucky (1792) Tennessee (1796) * Louisiana (1812) * Mississippi (1817) * Alabama (1819) * Addition of New States Maine (1820) Michigan (1837) Iowa (1846) Wisconsin (1848) Missouri (1821) Arkansas (1836) * Florida (1845) * Texas (1845) *

23 Problems with California In 1850, California - admission as free state Threatens to upset the balance of power in the Senate States from Mexican Cession – free or slave? Henry Clay proposes a compromise –California entered as a free state –Mexican Cession divided – New Mexico and Utah Could decide slavery for themselves –Slave trade ended in Washington, D.C –Congress had no power to ban it between states –New Fugitive Slave Law

24 Fugitive Slave Law All citizens help catch runaway slaves $1,000 fine and up to 6 months in jail for those who let slaves escape Special courts for runaway slaves Judges pay: – $10 if a person was sent to the South – $ 5 for setting a person free Thousands of free blacks fled to Canada Convinced more northerners that slavery was evil

25 Kansas-Nebraska Act Senator Stephen Douglas wants to build a railroad through the Nebraska territory from California to Chicago, Illinois Divide into two territories – Kansas and Nebraska Popular sovereignty Southerners believed Kansas would go for slavery Directly contradicted the Missouri Compromise Made slavery possible in Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36º30'N

26 Bleeding Kansas Both proslavery and antislavery settlers moved there Each group set up its own government

27 John Brown Proslavery men attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas Abolitionist John Brown and his followers killed five proslavery settlers in Pottawatomie Creek This sparked more violence By late 1856, more than 200 people had been killed

28 The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave who moved with his owner to the free state of Wisconsin When his owner died, antislavery lawyers went to court to obtain Scott’s legal status as a free man

29 The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was not a citizen Slaves considered property Slavery was legal in all territories Little choice short of war to end slavery

30 Growing Regional Conflict Missouri Compromise Wilmot Proviso Compromise of 1850 Kansas Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas The Dred Scott Decision Civil War 1861


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