Presentation on theme: "World War II and it’s Aftermath 1931-1955 World History Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:
World War II and it’s Aftermath World History Chapter 14
The art of war is of vital importance to the State. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected - Sun Tzu, the Art of War
From Appeasement to War – After WWI, western democracies desperately wanted to avoid another war, ignoring the signs of aggression. Aggression Goes Unchecked As the fascist powers continued to press, western democracies verbally protested, which Japan, Germany, and Italy took for weakness, and continued their aggression. – Japan Overruns Manchuria and Eastern China Japan’s military, after its’ success in the Russo-Japanese war, the annexation of Korea, and the territorial concessions in China. When Japanese officers sabotaged the railroad and blamed it on Chinese nationalists, it gave Japan the excuse to invade Manchuria in These victories gave enough popularity that it took over the government, and continued its conquest of Eastern China. – Italy Invades Ethiopia In 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia (one of the few African nations still not under European control). Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations, and the League voted to have sanctions against Italy, but this did nothing to stop Italy. – Hitler Goes Against the Treaty of Versailles Hitler’s actions of building up the German military, militarizing the Rhineland and defying the Treaty of Versailles made him very popular among Germans. Even though Germany defied the western democracies again and again, the west continued a policy of appeasement in order to avoid war. – Keeping the Peace Pacifism, desire to contain communism, and a recognition that the terms of the Treaty had been a bit too harsh led many on the west to continue a policy of appeasement in hopes that Germany would be satisfied and avoid war. – Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis As it became apparent that the western powers would do little to stop them, Germany, Italy, and Japan entered into an agreement to support each other.
Spain Collapses into Civil War In 1931, a popular uprising forced the king from power, and a more liberal government was created. Reforms redistributed land from the church and aristocrats to the people. Many liberals and socialists wanted to go further in reforms, while a growing number of conservatives and military officers wanted to reject these changes. In 1936, Francisco Franco, a fascist general led a revolt that was supported by the Germans and Italians, and while other countries remained officially neutral, Americans, Brits, French, Soviets, and others joined the loyalists to fight the fascists. Germany gave direct military aid, including new German weapons, and whole German military units tested these weapons in the Spanish Civil War. Franco won the war in 1939, but did not participate in WWII, and Spain remained neutral through the war, though friendly with Germany.
German Aggression Continues – Lebensraum – Aryan racial superiority (Eugenics) – Reuniting German peoples into a greater Germany Austria Annexed – Austria and Germany had a very long tradition of being culturally similar, and the Nazi party had many followers in Austria. Hitler pressured the Austrian chancellor to appoint Nazi cabinet members. When the Austrian chancellor refused further demands, Hitler ordered the German army to Austria to “preserve order” completing Anschluss (annexation) of Austria. The Czech Crisis – Hitler’s goals did not stop there, and there were some regions of northern Czechoslovakia that had German speaking communities, the Sudetenland, and Hitler demanded their return to Germany based on their “mistreatment” by the Czech government. – The British and French held talks with Hitler, and Hitler declared that if the Sudetenland was surrendered, he would have no further territorial ambitions. The British believed him, and even thought he Czechs were not consulted, Germany was given permission to occupy the Sudetenland. “Peace for Our Time” – Chancellor Neville Chamberlain of Great Britain declared that there would be “Peace for our time” with the appeasement of Hitler. This would prove to be a disaster, as many opposition leaders predicted (Churchill).
All warfare is based on deception. Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near. Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him. - Sun Tzu, the Art of War
Europe Plunges Towards War – As Churchill predicted, by 1939, Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia. Appeasement had failed, and Britain and France promised to protect Poland. Nazi-Soviet Pact – Though Hitler had always admired the British, and had wanted to build an alliance with them, their stance with Poland forced Hitler to turn to his hated rival, Stalin. This relationship resulted in a pact to divide Poland and not to attack each other. – Though both Hitler and Stalin knew war was inevitable, they were both stalling for time, hoping to fool the other. Invasion of Poland – A week after the pact was signed, Germany invaded Poland on September , causing France to declare war on Germany. Poland lasted only a month against the German blitzkrieg (lightning war). Poland was divided, Russia occupied the Balkan states, and WWII was officially begun.
The Axis Advances The Axis Attacks September 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland - Blitzkrieg – The “Phony War” Allies prepare for war during winter – Germany attacks Denmark, Norway. – Reprisal of the Von Schlieffen Plan Just like in WWI, the Germans avoid French fortifications, attack through Belgium and Holland – Miracle of Dunkirk The German blitzkrieg catches the British and French by surprise, allied forces are split, Germans surround British forces are Dunkirk. Massive sealift allows escape of British troops. – France Falls In a month, France falls, and is forced to sign a surrender in the same train car in which the Germans signed the Treaty of Versailles. France is split in two, with the north directly in German occupation and the south self governed as Vichy France. – Operation Sea Lion German plan to invade Britain, attempts to destroy the RAF fails – Germany Launches the Blitz German air attacks focus on population bombing to attack British morale. Constant attacks on London and British population centers for 57 days. – Hitler Fails to Take Britain With the failure to destroy the RAF, or break the will of the British, Hitler cancels Sea Lion, U-Boat operations continue. – Africa and the Balkans Italy attempts to invade Egypt from Libya, fails, German general Rommel “the Desert Fox”. Italians then attempt invasion of Greece, fail, Germans again take over. Crete invaded. Axis powers of Germany and Italy control almost all of Europe and North Africa.
To fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting. -Sun Tzu, the Art of War
Germany Invades the Soviet Union – June 1941, Hitler declares war on Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa. – 3 million German Soldiers invade, Soviet Union caught completely by surprise. Most of Soviet air force caught on the ground. – In the initial advances, Germans captured an area equal to another Europe, 2 ½ million Soviet soldiers killed or captured in the first few weeks. An Unstoppable German Army Stalls – As the German army approached Moscow, winter set in, Soviet resistance stiffened, and troops from the far east began to arrive, sub-zero temperatures and lack of winter gear stopped the German advance in the suburbs of Moscow, barely 20 miles from the city center. – To the north, the city of Leningrad stopped the German advance in the Baltic at the edge of the city, where Germany started a siege of the city that would last 2 and a half years. Germany’s Siege of Leningrad – Leningrad was renamed from the capital of St Petersburg after the fall of the Russian Empire. On one side is the Baltic sea, on the other is a large lake. The Germans cut off all land access to the city, waiting for the people to starve and surrender. – The people of Leningrad ate whatever they could, including wallpaper, shoes, and anything else they could. Some food was transported across the frozen lake during the night when possible.
Life Under Nazi and Japanese Occupation Hitler’s “New Order” – Master race in control – Puppet governments – Concentration camps for dissidents and undesirables (Slavs, Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, disabled). – Slave labor – Plundering other countries. Land, art, gold, etc.. – Collaboration by Vichy, others who ideologically aligned The Nazi’s Commit Genocide – The Final Solution – Hair, skin, fillings used – Worked until death (healthy) – Gas chambers, furnaces – 6 million Jews, 6 million others (5000/day at Treblinka) Japan’s Brutal Conquest – Slave labor – Torture – Weapon testing – “Comfort women”
Japan Attacks the United States American Involvement Grows – At the start of the war, the United States was officially neutral, (Neutrality Act), but FDR wanted to help Britain who was facing Germany alone. – To this end, the Lend/Lease act was started to make the US the “Arsenal of Democracy”. This system of loaning or giving weapons was later expanded to Russia. Japan and the United States Face Off – Japan’s conquests continued south to the tip of Malaysia, capturing the British controlled city Singapore. In response to these attacks, the US started an embargo of Iron, Steel, Oil and Rubber to Japan. Japan could not get these resources itself and they were vital to Japan’s war effort. Japan and the US held talks to resolve the situation, but these were a cover to allow time to attack Pearl Harbor. Attack on Pearl Harbor – December 7, 1941, 6 Japanese Carriers attacked Pearl Harbor with over 300 aircraft 4 battleships sunk, 4 damaged 3 cruisers and 3 destroyers, 2 other ships sunk 188 aircraft destroyed on the ground – A Day Which Shall Live in Infamy – America declares war Japanese Victories – Philippines – Burma – Hong Kong – Malaya – Dutch East Indies – French Indochina
If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. - Sun Tzu
The Allies Turn the Tide All-Out War – Governments Increase Power Directing economic resources Prices and wages regulated Rationing Japanese in internment camps – Executive order 9066 – Women Help Win the War Rosie the Riveter Soviet women fought in all phases of the war
The Allies Forge Ahead Japanese Navy Battered – Coral Sea – Midway The Big Three Plot Their Strategy – Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill get together to discuss the course of the war in Tehran Allied Victory in North Africa – El Alamein – Montgomery stopped Rommel – Patton and US enter war against Germany Allies Advance Through Italy – Sicily and the Mafia – Italy surrenders, Germany take over Italian defense Germans Defeated at Stalingrad – 1942, German offensive in the Southern Russia, trying to control oil fields. Stalingrad lasted 8 months, 841,000 Axis losses, 1.2 million Red army losses. After Stalingrad, the Soviets took the offensive.
The Allies Push Toward Germany The D-Day Assault – Largest amphibious landing in the history of mankind. Over 176,000 troops delivered to the beaches by over 5000 ships. – Paratroopers/gliders – Bocage – Breakthrough The Allies Continue to Advance – Allied bombing – Liberation of Paris (resistance) – Battle of the Bulge Uneasy Agreement at Yalta – At Yalta, Roosevelt was dying, and Stalin took advantage of this to push for more concessions for the Soviet Union, and Churchill was unable to stop him.
Victory in Europe! Nazis Defeated – By March 1945, the Americans and British were crossing the Rhine (major German river), and from the east, the Russians closed in on Berlin. – In late April, American and Russian forces shook hands at the Elbe River, Axis armies were surrendering all over Europe. – In Italy, Mussolini was captured and killed by locals, on May 7 th, Hitler committed suicide with his bride in their underground shelter under the Chancellery in Berlin. – May 8 th, V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
Struggle for the Pacific – Until the battle of the Coral Sea in 1942, the Japanese had won an uninterrupted series of victories across Asia and the Southern Pacific. The Philippines, which had been under American control held out for a month, but when captured by the Japanese, forced to march 69 miles with no food or water, the Bataan Death march. Island Hopping Campaign – New Guinea and the Solomon Islands – Guadalcanal – Tarawa – Kwajalein – Eniwetok – Saipan – Guam – Tinian – Peleliu – Anguar – Iwo Jima – Okinawa
Defeat for Japan Invasion or the Bomb? – With the War in Europe over, the Allies focused on Japan. – The Japanese, growing increasingly desperate, used kamikaze attacks to slow the allied advance. – The most secret project of the war, the Manhattan Project, was a project to develop an atomic bomb. By the time it was ready, Roosevelt had died of Polio, and his vice president, Harry Truman took the oath of office. Truman was advised of the existence of the bomb, and he decided to use it to force a Japanese surrender. Utter Destruction – On August 6, Hiroshima was bombed, flattened 4 sq miles, killing 70,000 instantly. Many more would die of radiation. On August 8, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, more than 40,000 killed. – On August 10, Hirohito forced the government to surrender. V-J Day.
The End of WWII The War’s Aftermath Much of the world was devastated by the war. The war had cost about 50 million lives, and many more from hunger, disease, displacement, etc. – The Horrors of the Holocaust “Indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every sense of human decency.” – War Crimes Trials First time ever – crimes against humanity – Nuremburg – 177 Germans and Austrians tried, 142 found guilty – Other trials held in Japan and Italy – “Just following orders” not sufficient defense for committing crimes – Occupying Allies It was felt that strengthening democracy would promote peace and protect rights. To achieve this, the U.S. and allies created new governments and constitutions for Japan and Germany.
Establishing the United Nations In 1945, 50 nations gathered in San Francisco to draft a new charter for a United Nations to succeed the League of Nations. The winning allies would have five permanent seats on the UN security council, each with the power of veto (U.S., England, France, Soviet Union, China). The other seats on the security council would rotate among member nations. In the General Assembly, all nations would have equal voting power. The United Nations would take on issues such as peacekeeping, organizing prevention of disease, protecting refugees, helping nations develop economically, providing aid. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Eleanor Roosevelt) 1948 – The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was the first international document to address in detail the notion that there exists a set of universal rights and fundamental freedoms that governments are obligated to secure for their citizens. – The declaration describes justice, equality and dignity as basic human rights of every man, woman and child. According to the declaration, “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” and protecting the “inherent dignity of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.” The declaration became the foundation of international human-rights law.
The Alliance Breaks Apart Differences Grow Between Allies – Even before the dust settled in Europe, the alliance between the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union was falling apart as capitalism and communism each viewed the other as the next opponent. – The US and Soviet Union were the major powers, and even before the war ended, generals on both sides urged using the massive militaries they had both built up to attack the other. The Cold War Begins – The Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe began badly, as Stalin reneged on his promises to hold open elections in occupied territories, and the Red Army crushed any government that opposed the Soviet Union. – Both sides prepared for the possibility of surprise attack from the other, causing tensions to rise, and rhetoric to become heated.
New Conflicts Develop The Truman Doctrine – Helping countries oppose communism with economic and military aid The Marshall Plan – To strengthen democracies and prevent the rise of new fascist states, the Marshall Plan offered massive amounts of food, grants of money, loans, materials, to countries harmed by the war, to help them rebuild their economies, provide jobs, and prevent uprisings. The plan worked magnificently, and former enemies became allies. – The Soviet Union refused aid, and refused aid for occupied countries. Germany Stays Divided – To prevent Germany from becoming a threat again, the country was divided into four parts (US, British, French, Soviet zones) and Berlin was also divided the same way. – Western Germany under western control become democratic, and Eastern Germany became Communist. The Berlin Airlift – Stalin’s resentment at the Marshal plan and the rebuilding of Western Germany erupted in the blockade of Berlin, which was surrounded by Eastern Germany. Stalin believed that the West would fold rather than attack to open a path to the city. – Instead, the West set up a round the clock airlift of supplies into West Berlin to feed the city that lasted more than a year. At the height of the Airlift, one plane reached West Berlin every thirty seconds. Stalin backed down, but tensions rose. Opposing Alliances – Nato vs Warsaw Pact The Propaganda War – Defending capitalism, freedom vs communism and totalitarianism – Defending the workers vs capitalist imperialist warmongers