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March 12, 1947 Addressed to a joint session of Congress.

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1 March 12, 1947 Addressed to a joint session of Congress

2 Details  On 12th March, 1947, Harry S. Truman, announced details to Congress of what eventually became known as the Truman Doctrine.Harry S. Truman  In his speech he pledged American support for "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures".  This speech also included a request that Congress agree to give military and economic aid to Greece in its fight against communism.  Truman asked for $400,000,000 for this aid program.  He also explained that he intended to send American military and economic advisers to countries whose political stability was threatened by communism.

3 Why did he give the speech?  The immediate cause for the speech was a recent announcement by the British Government that, as of March 31, it would no longer provide military and economic assistance to the Greek Government in its civil war against the Greek Communist Party.  Truman asked Congress to support the Greek Government against the Communists.  He also asked Congress to provide assistance for Turkey, since that nation, too, had previously been dependent on British aid.  At the time, the U.S. Government believed that the Soviet Union supported the Greek Communist war effort and worried that if the Communists prevailed in the Greek civil war, the Soviets would ultimately influence Greek policy

4 What does the Doctrine do?  the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces.  The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from its usual stance of withdrawal from regional conflicts not directly involving the United States, to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts.  The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to actively offering assistance to preserve the political integrity of democratic nations when such an offer was deemed to be in the best interest of the United States.

5 Conclusion  March 12, 1947 this was Pres. Truman’s policy to help any country where a group was attempting to overthrow the existing government;  It was aimed at helping countries where the communists were attempting a takeover of the existing government;  It was first used to help the governments of both Greece and Turkey and the US provided Greece and Turkey with $400 million in economic and military aid;  As a result, the communists never took over Greece or Turkey.

6 Marshall Plan  Delivered at the Harvard University commencement on June 5, 1947, by Secretary of State George Marshall  "Europe's requirements are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character.“

7 Marshall Plan  He then suggested a solution: that the European nations themselves set up a program for the reconstruction of Europe, with United States assistance.  This speech marked the official beginning of the Economic Recovery Program (ERP), better known as "The Marshall Plan.”  Under the plan, the United States provided aid to prevent starvation in the major war areas, repair the devastation of those areas as quickly as possible, and begin economic reconstruction.

8 What did it want to do?  The plan had two major aims:  1) To prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe  2) To stabilize the international order in a way favorable to the development of political democracy and free-market economies

9 Did it work?  European reaction to Marshall's speech was quick and positive  Over the four-years during which the Marshall Plan was formally in operation, Congress appropriated $13.3 billion for European recovery  The plan was the boldest, most successful, and certainly the most expensive foreign policy initiative ever attempted in peacetime.  For his efforts in reviving Europe, Marshall won the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize, the first professional soldier to receive it.

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