Presentation on theme: "Politics in 1950s Ch. 20, Sec 3. Economics Truman’s first peacetime job was reconversion- moving to peacetime economy. – Quickly brought troops home from."— Presentation transcript:
Economics Truman’s first peacetime job was reconversion- moving to peacetime economy. – Quickly brought troops home from Europe, Asia. – Removed gov’t controls on economy, production. Prices rose 25%, eventually settled. – Workers demanded wage increases they didn’t get due to war effort. Led to increased strikes in 1946. Congress passed Taft-Hartley Act in 1947. – Allowed President to declare 80-day cooling off period, forcing strikers to return to work in vital industries. – Also required union leaders to swear they weren’t Communists. Truman vetoed, Congress overrode veto.
Democrat Truman began program called Fair Deal, extended New Deal policies. Legislation promoted: – Full employment, higher minimum wage, more unemployment compensation, housing assistance, national health insurance, creation of atomic energy commission. Almost all were shot down by Congress. 1946-Republicans won control of Congress. – Worked to reduce size, power of gov’t, reduce taxes, block Truman’s goals.
Truman found more success in civil rights issues. – Wanted “equality of opportunity”. 1948-banned discrimination in hiring of federal employees. 1948-De-segregated armed forces. These were first steps of civil rights movement of ‘50s & ‘60s.
1948 Election 1948-Truman ran for second term as President. Democrat Party split over Truman. – Southern Democrats & segregationists split off, formed Dixiecrat Praty, backed S. Carolina governor Strom Thurmond for President. – Liberal Democrats backed Progressive Party Henry Wallace, former FDR VP. Republican Party nominated New York governor Thomas Dewey.
Truman campaigned against “do-nothing” Congress. – Gave fiery speeches, earned nickname “Give ‘em hell, Harry”. During election, everyone thought Dewey would beat Truman easily. – Truman won easily, Democrats regained Congress. Fair Deal continued, won no major victories. 1951-22nd Amendment passed. – Limited President to two terms or ten years. No overwhelming public support or opposition.
Ike 1952-Republican Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower won election against Democrat Adlai Stevenson. – Ike was talented diplomat, very laid-back, popular. – Strong anti-Communist, promised to end Korean War. – Vice-President Richard Nixon opposed to Communism, gov’t corruption. Soon before election, Nixon accused of receiving illegal gifts from supporters. – Not true, but scandal began. – Nixon went on tv, gave detailed look at finances, said he had received 1 gift-dog named Checkers, keeping it. – Checkers Speech kept Nixon on ticket, helped ensure Ike’s victory.
Ike worked behind scenes, viewed by some as lack of leadership. Ike’s style popular, easily won re-election in 1956, again against Stevenson. Ike developed Modern Republicanism. – More power to Congress, less to President (unlike FDR), cutting spending, reducing taxes, balancing budget. – Liked big business, wanted to shrink size & power of gov’t. – Gave federal oil lands to states for drilling (more power to states).
Some of Ike’s plans backfired. – Cuts in gov’t spending led to short recession. – Economic growth slowed, but did not stop. Ike also dealt with Space Race against USSR. – Due to Sputnik, Ike created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Independent agency tasked with space exploration. Congress & Ike passed National Defense Education Act. – Improve science & math education in schools. – So US could meet technology challenges against USSR.