Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer Using your Homework, on a sheet of paper answer the following questions. 1.What was the main purpose of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences?"— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer Using your Homework, on a sheet of paper answer the following questions. 1.What was the main purpose of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences? 2.Explain the fundamental differences between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Any person should be free to start a business and employ people. Any profit made is reward for hard work A free economy Opportunity for all. Average standard of living better than Communism Wider range between rich and poor. Individual Freedoms, protest Government controls business. Worker own factories, but controlled by government (controlled economy) Profit = greed Lower avg. standard of living but everyone is equal Profits go to the state not the individual, everyone benefits. Propaganda & Censorship widely practiced.
The Cold War
Legacy of WWII 1.U.S. and Soviet Union Emerge as superpowers…best military, good economy. 2.Middle East tensions Israel vs. Palestine (displaced European Jews) 3. Cold War
What organization had been formed at the end of WWI to prevent global war? 1) United Nations- formed near end of WWII as a body of nations to prevent future global wars.
3. Europe Eastern Europe Obliterated by WAR Lack of –Resources –Jobs –Homes –Basic necessities Capitalism offers –Money (rebuild on your own) –Aid Communism offers –Jobs –Food –shelter
East Germany West Germany Divided Berlin Europe -Soviet controlled East Europe -Germany divided into East (Communist) West (Democratic)
JAPAN -Occupied by American forces (military bases) -Adopts democratic form of government (MacArthur Const.) - End of Emperor -Resumed self-gov’t -Ally of U.S.
I. Post-WWII outcomes 4)Origins of Cold War 1)Disagreements over Post War Germany 2)Soviets actions in Poland 1) Raided factories for machinery and equipment 2) Placed Russian Army throughout E. Europe 3)Yalta & Potsdam Conferences 4)Soviets’ refusal to honor Declaration of Liberated Europe
Cold War- 45 year competition about values. (end of WWII-collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 — 8 presidents) OR COLD WAR U.S. and West Soviet Union and East -Democracy -Individual Freedom -Market economy -Totalitarianism -Socialism: state centered -Communist II. Cold War: Defined
Conferences cause Confrontation YALTA: Feb ‘45 POTSDAM: July ‘45 Poland –USA wants post war governments & free elections –USSR wants Poland govts friendly to USSR. Declaration of Liberated Europe –“people’s right to choose their government” –Resume free elections Dividing Germany into 4 Zones US, France, Britain & USSR –Disagreements about Reparations & Economic policy cause US-USSR tensions….TBC Truman & Stalin argue about what to do with Germany Truman: “German industry essential to European economy” Stalin “USSR economy destroyed and Germany must pay.” Truman to USSR “Get reparations from your zone” Stalin wanted reparations from ALL zones. Truman tells Stalin about A-Bomb Stalin agrees to Truman’s terms
“Iron Curtain” The military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and western Europe Stalin ignores Dec. of Liberated Europe Satellite Nations - Communist nations of E. Europe not controlled by USSR.
III. Cold War: U.S --- Foreign Policy ***CONTAINMENT- do not let Communism spread, using diplomatic, economic, and military actions George Kennan- US diplomat “Long Telegram” explained Soviets Feared capitalism Were insecure US Communism was weak economically and could be defeated if unable to expand CONTAINMENTPractice CONTAINMENT
Truman Doctrine Reasoning –Threatened by Communist influence in Turkey and Greece Financial aid “to support free peoples” Sent $400 million worth of munitions to Greece and Turkey helped push out Communism New level of American commitment to a Cold War.
Marshall Plan- massive financial aid to rebuild Europe. Claimed to combat poverty not politics. George Marshall III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Eastern European Nations War damage and poverty = Communist influence Economic aid kept them from joining Communism Soviets refused – The blame for dividing Europe fell on the Soviet Union, not the United States. And the Marshall Plan proved crucial to Western Europe’s economic recovery. “Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos.”
1949 Soviet Union successfully explodes an atomic Bomb Made USSR = to USA st Hydrogen Bomb tested THE STAKES ARE HIGH (BOTH U.S. and Soviet Union hold capability to destroy each other) II. Cold War: Defined
Warsaw Pact, Defensive alliance between Soviet Union and Eastern European Countries. NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization Defensive alliance between U.S. and Western Europe (1 st time U.S. entered into peacetime military alliance)
III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Berlin Airlift ( )- Soviets block access to west Berlin. Truman orders supplies airlifted. *2.3 million tons of supplies
(1949)- Mao Zedong leads Communist takeover in China (rival to Soviet Union) REACTION: Increased fears of communist domination US authorizes development of hydrogen bomb III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy
NSC-68: U.S. National Security Report, 1950 emphasizes Soviet aggression calls for massive U.S. military buildup III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy “The U.S.S.R.’s desire for World Domination requires not only to this Republic but civilization itself take a stand”
Cold War Strategies 1.Brinkmanship 2.Foreign Aid 3.Alliances 4.Propaganda 5.Proxy Wars 6.Containment 7.Domino Theory Foreign Policies: 1.Marshall Plan 2.Truman Doctrine 3.Korean War 4.Arms Race 5.Space Race 6.Eisenhower Doctrine 7.Crisis Control 5.
Dwight D. Eisenhower President Jan 1953 GI Bill- provided vets with business, home and college loans 1944 Strong Military & Economics –Show capitalism was better than communism. NEW LOOK –Not keep a large expensive army. More Bang for the Buck –Nuclear weapons ready
superiorityCompetition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons. Not limitedNot limited to USA & USSR
Nuclear Deterrence –Theory that an enemy will not use nuclear weapons as long as they can be destroyed as a consequence.
Cold War Nuclear Arms Race 1949 –USSR develops A- Bomb –U.S. no longer lone Superpower Mid 1950s –Both sides have H- Bombs 1960s –enough warheads to destroy one another Massive Fallout, “Nuclear Winter” Federal Budget % allocated to defense spending % allocated to defense spending
Weaponry USA –Preferred Bombers USSR –ICBM’s Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles Long range Gave USSR the lead in the Space Race
Yuri Gagarin Valentina Tereshkova NASA launched 1 st US satelite 1 st USSR satelite 1 st animal in space Laika Neil Armstrong
Sputnik Crisis Space Race started as a means to launch Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) Oct 1957-Soviets launch Sputnik- 1 st satellite to orbit earth Americans afraid U.S had fallen behind Soviets.
NASA –Fear from Sputnik –Created by congress –Research rocket science & space exploration. National Defense Education –Provided school funding for Math Science Foreign Language
Brinkmanship Brinkmanship- –the willingness to go to the brink of war to make the other side back down Asia –China threatened to seize Taiwan… –US threatened w/ Nuclear weapons. –China backed down
Nikita Khrushchev 1953 Stalin Dies Power Struggle ensues 1956 Khrushchev emerges as leader of USSR Secretly Defied Stalin’s Policy Defiance caused E. European countries to rebel. Used military force. Your grandchildren will live under COMMUNISM!
Crisis Middle East Iran 1953 –Great Britain stealing Iran oil. –Iran kicks Brits out and “nationalize oil” –USA claims Iran going Commie –US and GB overthrow Iran govt. –Puppet regime in Mid East. –Containment but really Oil Suez Crisis 1956 –Prevent communism in the middle east. –GB, France & Israel want control of Suez Canal –USSR sides with Egypt –USA stops GB, France & Israel
Eisenhower Doctrine 1957 Countries could request US economic or military aid if threatened by another nation… "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism."
1950s Culture, Technology and Society
Facing the Bomb Mass hysteria of Soviet attack Duck and Cover –“protection from Nuclear blast” Fallout –radiation that would kill those the blast didn’t. Fallout shelter –Underground buildings stocked with food and water.
dream of a successful life growth of big business businesses franchising: chain stores Dept Stores McDonald's Conformity: influenced by others Clothes Speech Music purchases Individuality disappears Church Damnation gone Love & Peace American Dream
Consumerism -buying of material goods -new products polyester, Teflon, electronics Keeping up with the Joneses! New TV New Car! New Freezer -planned obsolescence: things will go out of date – have to buy new ones! -credit cards -Influenced by advertising
Advertising! “Soap Opera” –Selling detergent during daytime television Marketing to specific viewers. Pays for programming Supports Consumerism
Car Culture Interstate Highway System -growth of suburbia: commuting a necessity Connects states with system of high travel roads -trucking industry: interstate makes long haul possible -social effects cruising teens, drive ins and drive- thru, car advertisements, travel hotels Transport – Nuclear Missiles
Suburbia -most new homes were in the suburbs, 85% -baby boom generation by 1957 there was 1 baby born per 7 seconds Baby boom leads to: -Medical breakthroughs Jonas Salk: vaccine for polio -Childrearing; do it by guidelines Dr. Spock’s influence: raise kids a certain way, widely published, encouraged communication
Television Early shows Live variety acts Many flaws & mistakes Simplistic TV- Mass Media Promotes Conformity People think alike Shows Ideal suburban life No real female role models No Minorities or Poverty Male superiority No violence BUY Conform Don’t think No questions
Poverty -25 %of Americans were below poverty line (what is needed to survive) White Flight million of middle class whites moved to suburbs loss of tax dollars hurt city services lots of rural poor move to cities breakdown of inner cities Urban Renewal: HUD, improve inner city, help poor Not seen on TV
Beatniks -beat movement social and literary non- conformists -non-material lifestyle shunned regular work -set precedent for the hippy generation with very little structure -clashed with regular America described as exact opposite
Rock-n-Roll -Alan Freed: coined term rock-n-roll music black and white -Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley: King of Rock and Roll -Ed Sullivan Show variety show, ET of all sorts -Dick Clark American Band Stand -reaction to rock music: Teens love it, Adults hate it
Crisis close to home Bay of Pigs –Failed attempt to overthrow Castro in Cuba –Made the USA & Kennedy look weak. Cuban Missile Crisis –13 day Nuclear standoff between US & USSR –USSR remove missiles from Cuba –USA remove missiles from Turkey