2Clash of Interests Soviet Union America Concerned about security Wanted Germany to be weakSuspicious of capitalistic nationsAmericaWanted economic growthPromote democracyFree Enterprise system (private property and limited gov)
4Yalta Conference Plan for post-war world Plan for Poland: Polish Dem. gov. vs. Polish communist governmentU.S. vs. U.S.S.R.Free leaders recognize Polish gov. set up by Russia with prior Polish leadersDeclaration of Liberated EuropePeople will choose the form of government under which they will live
5Dividing Germany Germany divided into 4 zones G.B., U.S., France and Russia get a zoneBerlin divided among the 4 countries
6Potsdam ConferenceTruman and Stalin meet at Potsdam to work out a deal on GermanyTruman concerned about German industryStalin wanted Germany’s reparationsTruman vs. Stalin:Truman wants Stalin to take reparations from the Soviet Zone – Stalin hates this!!!Truman gives Stalin industrial equipment & threatens US has atom bombTENSIONS ARISE!!!
7Containing Communism George Kennan Explains Soviet behaviorSends the long telegram – 5,540 word messageSoviets insecure with West – no agreements with AmericansLong Telegram secures idea of Containment
8Crisis In Iran During WWII After WWII American troops in Southern Iran Soviets in Northern IranIssues over securing oil supply linesAfter WWIISoviets refuse to withdraw from JapanStalin helps Iranians in North form a Communist government
9Truman Doctrine (1947) Soviets focusing on Turkey Dean Acheson (pres. Advisor) tells Truman Soviets need to see American forceMarch 12, 1947 Truman Doctrine$400 million to fight communists in Greece and TurkeyGoal was to aid free peoples resisting CommunismPledged the US to fight Communism worldwide
10Marshall Plan Postwar Europe in economic problems Marshall Plan would provide economic recoveryProvided billions for supplies, machinery, and food into Western EuropePREVENTED COMMUNISM FROM SPREADING!!!
12Crisis in Berlin Western Europe’s prosperity depended on Germany Soviets trying to undermine Germany’s economyDemocratic countries join zones to allow Germans to have their own gov.West Germany – DemocraticEast Germany – Russia
14Berlin Air LiftSplitting Germany = Soviets not getting reparations they wantedSoviets cut off all road and rail traffic to West Berlin (democratic zone)Soviets trying to get all of BerlinTruman orders Berlin Air Lift11 months longPlanes dropped 2 million tons of suppliesAirlift symbolized American fight for a Democratic Germany
15NATO North Atlantic treaty Organization Warsaw Pact 12 countries involvedMembers would aid any country attacked by RussiaWarsaw PactRussian military alliance in eastern Europe
17Civil War in ChinaMao Zedong (communist) vs. Chiang Kai-shek (Nationalist)After WWII Civil War broke out again!!!To support Nationalist cause – US sends $2 billion to Chiang Kai-shekPoor military planning – Mao wins!!!People’s Republic of China established
18The Korean War American and Soviet forces remove Japanese from Korea Korea Divided at the 38th ParallelNorth: RussiaSouth: U.S.Both countries fund the troops in their zoneNorth Korean troops invade South Korea on June 25, 1950
20The UN IntervenesPres. Truman orders Air and Sea forces into South KoreaGets permission from the UNTruman orders MacArthur to fight in KoreaU.S. forces are driven from 38th parallel to “Pusan perimeter”MacArthur invades North Korea (by surprise) at Inchon and maintains the 38th parallel
22China Enters WarChinese sees UN troops as a threat and launch an attack on the AmericansTroops are driven back below 38th parallel (AGAIN!!!)MacArthurwants more troops (nationalist forces from China)called for the blockade of Chinese portsUse A-Bomb on Chinese citiesTruman denies and fires MacArthurMaintains limited war!!!
23Ch. 26 Sect. 3 New Red Scare Fear of Communists taking over World Igor Gouzenko defected – US learns of Communist subversionLoyalty Review Prog.Federal workers screened for being Communist6 million screened – 2000 quit – 212 fired for “questionable loyalty”HUAC (House UnAmerican Activities Committee)J. Edgar Hoover (FBI) makes HUAC importantInfiltrated groups and wiretapped phones
24Alger Hiss Lawyer and diplomat Accused of being a Communist and a spy Secret gov. documents and microfilm (called “pumpkin papers”) revealed Hiss was a spyJury convicts Hiss of perjury
25The Rosenbergs American commies selling A-Bomb secrets Klaus Fuchs sent info to Soviet UnionImplements Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – who were part of Communist partyGov. gave Rosenbergs DEATH PENALTY for espionageExecuted June, 1953Project Verona – cryptographers crackedRussian codes
26McCarran Act Internal security act Illegal to form anything leading to a totalitarian gov.Truman vetoed the act – but congress passes itNever very effective
27McCarthyismSenator Joseph McCarthy claims he knew of American communistsNever revealed Americans names!!!Claimed high ranking Gov officials were RedInvestigation = Witch HuntMcCarthyism – damaging reputations with bogus charges!!!
28McCarthy’s Downfall McCarthy looked for spies in Army Army claims no spies – McCarthy takes fight to TVBullies officersPublic support starts to fadeSenate passes a vote of censure – McCarthy fades away!!!
29Nuclear Bomb!!! America prepares for atomic war “Duck and Cover” Fallout shelters were built for safety.
30Ch. 26 Sect. 3 Election of 1952 Eisenhower Adlai Stevenson (gov Illinois)Dwight D. EisenhowerEisenhower wins!!!EisenhowerD-Day generalMilitary and Economy key to winning Cold War“New Look” in defensesNuclear Weapons give “More Bang for the Buck”
31Sputnik Crisis Airforce unveils B-52 bombers ICBM’s (inter-continental ballistic missiles)Soviets launch SPUTNIK – first satellite!!!US feels they are falling behind!Congress creates:NASANational Defense Education Act
32Brinkmanship Willingness to threaten nuclear war to maintain peace Korean War ends with an armistice (July, 1953)
33Taiwan Crisis China tries to control Taiwan Taiwan part of barrier against Communism in AsiaIke threatens Nuclear weaponsChina backs down
34Suez Crisis US helps Egypt build a dam on the Nile River Egypt bought weapons from CommunistsUS leaves project – Egypt seizes Suez Canal for $Russia wins out – Arab nations begin takingCommunist Money
35Fighting Communism Covertly Eisenhower uses CIA to wage covert war1958 – IKE and Khrushchev meet at summit in ParisU-2 Spy plane and Francis Gary Powers Incident ruins summit