Presentation on theme: "HOME 26 C H A P T E R Cold War Conflicts CHAPTER OBJECTIVE"— Presentation transcript:
1HOME26C H A P T E RCold War ConflictsCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the international and domestic tensions resulting from the Cold War
2This chapter covers the beginnings of the Cold War under the Truman presidency as it affected both foreign and domestic policies.Peace after World War II was marred by a return to the 1917 rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union.Truman and his advisors introduced the basic Cold War policies of containment in the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.With the victory of the communists in Asia as well, the Cold War prompted the U.S. to rebuild its World War II enemies of Germany and Japan as counterweights to the Soviets.At home, Americans wanted to return to normal by bringing the troops back home, spending for consumer goods and re-establishing family life but many changing social patterns brought anxieties.A second Red Scare was caused by the Cold War rhetoric of a bipartisan foreign policy and Truman’s loyalty program but Senator Joseph McCarthy’s tactics symbolized the era.Defense spending increased and the American economy became dependent on it to maintain recovery.Truman tried to extend elements of the New Deal in his Fair Deal but with minimal success.
3Chronology1941 Henry Luce forecasts the dawn of "the American Century"1944 GI Bill of Rights authorizes educational + benefits for WW II veteransInternational Monetary Fund and World Bank founded at Bretton Woods1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in office; Harry Truman becomes presidentUnited Nations charter signed; World War II ends; Strike wave beginsTruman proposes program of economic reforms1946 Employment Act creates Council of Economic AdvisersWinston Churchill's Iron Curtain speechAtomic Energy Act establishes Atomic Energy CommissionRepublicans win control of CongressBenjamin Spock publishes Baby And Child Care1947 Americans for Democratic Action foundedTruman Doctrine; Congress appropriates $400 million for Greece/TurkeyFederal Employees Loyalty and Security Program established and attorney general's list of subversive organizations authorizedTaft-Harley Act restricts union activitiesNational Security Act establishes Department of Defense, the National Security Council, and the Central Intelligence AgencyHouse Un-American Activities Committee hearings in Hollywood
41948 State of Israel founded; Berlin blockade begins Henry Wallace nominated for president on Progressive Party ticketTruman’s peacetime draft; desegregates armed forces + civil serviceTruman wins election; Democrats sweep both houses of Congress1949 Truman’s Fair Deal; North Atlantic Treaty Organization createdCommunists led by Mao Zedong win in China; Berlin blockade endsSoviet Union explodes atomic bomb1950 Alger Hiss convicted of perjurySenator Joseph McCarthy begins anticommunist crusadeRepublic of China sign an allianceAdoption of NSC-68 consolidates presidential war powersKorean War beginsInternal Security (McCarran) Act requires registration of communist organizations and arrest of communist during national emergencies1951 Truman dismisses General Douglas MacArthurArmistice talks begin in Korea1952 Immigration and Nationality Act retains quota system, lifts ban on immigration of Asian peoples, bans "subversives" + homosexualsUS explodes first hydrogen bomb; Eisenhower presidency; Nixon VP1953 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed for atomic espionageArmistice ends fighting in Korea1954 Army-McCarthy hearings end1955 Warsaw Pact created
5Concepts “To err is Truman” George Kennan’s “containment” policy, implosionLoyalty actRichard Hofstader, consensus historianDeath of a Salesman; Catcher in the RyeUFOsM*A*S*H – screenwriter Ring Lardner, Jr.K1C2 – Korea, communism, corruptionAdlai Stevenson [Bakersfield’s Walter Stiern]Nixon’s "Checkers speech"
7Un. of Washington, Seattle In 1948 philosophy professor Melvin Rader was falsely accused of being a Communist conspirator.During the cold war era, the federal government was providing substantial support for higher education through the GI Bill.The student population at the University of Washington grew rapidly and a strong sense of community among the students grew, led by older, former soldiers.The Cold War put a damper on this community.Wild charges of communist subversion led several states to require state employees to take loyalty oaths.In this repressed atmosphere, faculty were dismissed, students dropped out of school, and the free speech was restrained on the campuses.
9Financing the FutureDuring WWII, the United States and Soviet Union had temporarily put aside their differences in a common fight.Divergent interests made a continued alliance unlikely.Fears of the return of depression led the United States to take a much more active international stance.The Soviet Union interpreted the aggressive American economic moves as a threat.
11The Division of EuropeFDR’s realism allowed him to recognize that some kinds of spheres of influence were inevitable for the winning powers. [Division of Poland and Europe at Yalta with link to Churchill’s proposals]Click on title to view Adobe Acrobat map.
13The Truman DoctrineWhile FDR favored diplomacy and compromise, Truman was committed to a get-tough policy with the Soviets.When civil war threatened the governments in Turkey and Greece, the United States warned of a communist coup and provided $400 million to defeat the rebels.The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to a policy of trying to contain Communism.
14The Marshall Plan and the Berlin Crisis The Marshall Plan provided $13 billion to rebuild Europe.The plan had the long-term impact of revitalizing the European capitalist economy and driving a further wedge between the West and Soviet Union.The gap widened when the western zones of Germany merged.When the Soviets cut off land access to West Berlin, the United States airlifted supplies to the city.
15NATO and Atomic Diplomacy The United States also created an alliance of anti-Soviet nations, NATO, and the Soviets responded with the Warsaw Pact.The East/West split seemed permanent.The American policy of containing Communism rested on the ability to stop its expansion by military means.After the Soviets developed nuclear weapons, both sides amassed lethal stockpiles. The U.S. and Soviets could not come up with a plan to control them. Within a few years both sides had a stockpile of hydrogen bombs.
17“To Err is Truman”The early years of the Truman presidency were plagued by protests by Americans tired of war-time sacrifices.An inability to bring troops home quickly or end rationing hurt Truman’s popularity. Inflation spread and strikes paralyzed the nation.Congress blocked Truman's plans for reconversion.In 1946, Republicans gained control of Congress and started to undo the New Deal. Over Truman’s veto, Republicans passed the Taft-Hartley bill that curtailed the power of labor.Refer to “Los Angeles Strike, 1946”
18The 1948 ElectionGoing into the 1948 election the liberal community was divided.Liberals feuded with Truman over how to extend the New Deal and the extent of the Soviet threat.Henry Wallace challenged Truman by running on the Progressive ticket, a campaign effectively quashed by red-baiting.Truman repositioned himself to the left by warning voters that Republicans would make the United States “an economic colony of Wall Street.”He also offered a liberal legislative package that Congress defeated.The Democrats split again over civil rights when segregationists ran Strom Thurmond for president.Refer to “Dewey Defeats Truman,” p. 818
20Truman’s VictoryTruman managed to hold on to the New Deal coalition and won re-election.Refer to “The Election of 1948”
21The Fair Deal In 1949 he proposed a package of reforms, the Fair Deal. Truman won some gains in public housing, minimum wage and Social Security increases, but little else.Truman helped to define Cold War liberalism as promoting economic growth through expanded foreign trade and federal expenditures, chiefly defense.Refer to “Number of Federal Employees in Executive Branch”
23The National Security Act of 1947 A climate of fear developed after the war that the United States was the target of or had already fallen prey to subversive influences.The Cold War triggered a massive reordering of governmental power.Established under the National Security Act of 1947, the Defense Department became a huge and powerful bureaucracy.The Department of Defense and the National Science Foundation pursued scientific research, especially related to physics.New agencies like the CIA fed off the fear of communism.
24The Loyalty-Security Program Allegedly to combat subversive influences, Truman promoted a loyalty program.The Attorney General published a list of potentially subversive organizations.Many groups disbanded and prior membership in them destroyed individuals’ careers. A wide range of restrictions on alleged subversives passed Congress.
25The Red Scare in Hollywood The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) launched investigations into Communist influence in Hollywood.A parade of friendly witnesses denounced Communists.Many people gave names of suspect former friends so that they themselves would be cleared and able to work again.A few witnesses (many blacklisted later) attacked HUAC and a handful went to prison for contempt of Congress.
26Spy CasesPublic anxieties were heightened when former State Department advisor Alger Hiss was accused of being a Communist spy.Richard Nixon pursued the charges.Hiss went to jail for perjury.Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed despite worldwide protests.
27McCarthyismSen. Joseph McCarthy caused a sensation when he charged that 200 Communists worked for the State Department.His lack of evidence did not stop him from striking a chord with many Americans.He played into fears that Communism was a demonic force and that eastern elites had successfully manipulated the public.McCarthyism attacked Jews, blacks, women’s organizations, and homosexuals. Effective use of the media made McCarthyism seem credible.McCarthy’s crusade was destroyed when he went on national TV and appeared deranged, making wild charges of Communist infiltration of the army.Refer to “McCarthy,” p. 823
29An Anxious MoodAfter World War II, millions of Americans achieved middle-class status.But prosperity did not dispel American anxiety over nuclear war and economic depression.Movies and plays reflected cold war anxieties and alienation as well as anti-communism.
30The Family as BulwarkThe move to the suburbs, high levels of consumption, and even the rush towards marriage and parenthood illustrated these fears.The baby boom and high consumer spending changed the middle-class family.Refer to “U.S. Birth Rate, ”
31Income and Consumer Spending To sustain support of larger families and high rates of consumer spending, a growing number of married, middle-class women sought employment.Refer to “Distribution of Total Personal Income,” p. 825
32The FamilyCommentators bemoaned the destruction of the traditional family that they linked to the threat of Communism.High-profile experts weighed in with popular books and articles about the dangers of women who abandoned their housewife roles.The conservative trend was also evident in declining numbers of woman college graduates.Refer to “The Ideal Kitchen,” p. 826
34Military-Industrial Communities in the West The Cold War impacted the West more than other regions.New military-industrial communities arose, especially in California, and older communities also benefited form federal spending.To accommodate the burgeoning population, new highway systems were built that created housing sprawl, traffic congestion, air pollution and strains on local water supplies.
36Zeal for DemocracyThe revitalization of patriotism during World War II continued after the return of peace.The American Way became a popular theme of public celebrations and patriotic messages spread through public education.Voices of protest arose but had little impact.
38The “Loss” of ChinaIn Asia, American foreign policy yielded mixed results.The United States achieved its greatest Asian success in Japan where a host of reforms brought an unprecedented degree of democracy and where they received valuable military bases.In China, Mao Zedong’s Communist revolution overthrew the corrupt, pro-American regime of Jiang Jeishi.The Truman Administration was saddled with the blame for having “lost” China.
39The Geography of the Korean War Click on title to view Adobe Acrobat map.
41The Korean WarWhen North Koreans attempted a forced reunification of the peninsula, Truman called it an act of Soviet aggression.Smarting from McCarthyite attacks, Truman felt compelled to act.With the Soviets boycotting the UN, the Security Council authorized sending in troops.American forces, commanded by Douglas MacArthur, first pushed North Koreans back to their side of the dividing line and then went further north.Chinese troops pushed the UN forces back until a costly stalemate settled in.Refer to “American Soldiers in Korea,” p. 830
42The Price of National Security Criticized for bypassing Congress, Truman explained that his authority came from NSC-68, a National Security Council position paper that:consolidated decision makingadvocated a massive buildup of military powerThe war left Korea devastated and greatly expanded the containment principle far beyond Europe.The military stalemate left many Americans disillusioned with the promise of easy victories.
43The Election of 1952The Korean War also effectively ruined Truman’s presidency, particularly after he fired General MacArthur.After Truman said he would not run for re-election, the Democratic Party turned to Adlai Stevenson who offered no solutions to the key problems.Dwight Eisenhower was the Republican candidate and ran a moderate campaign short on specifics.His running mate, Richard Nixon, waged a relentless attack on Stevenson.Eisenhower effectively used the peace issue, pledging to go to Korea to settle the war.Republicans won control of the White House and Congress.Refer to “Nixon,” p. 833
44Rules of George Bernard Shaw Diet (no steak, coffee, or tea)Avoid all vain and unkind criticism of othersKeep financial logDevote one evening a week for mediation and examination of conscienceAbstain from alcoholPractice some self-denial each day1/2 hour per day for poetry, spiritual book, writing1 1/2 hours per week to refresh learningDon't make promises you can't keepSome music for contemplation1/2 hour yoga or exercise each day
46S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. Describe the United States actions and the Soviet actions that contributed most to the cold war.U.S. ActionsSoviet ActionsMarshall PlanAid to Greece and TurkeyContainmentTruman DoctrineBerlin AirliftRefusal to allow free elections in PolandControl of Eastern EuropeBlockade of West Berlincontinued . . .
47S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT2. People who had served as aides to President Franklin Roosevelt worried that Truman was not qualified to handle world leadership. Considering what you learned in this section, evaluate Truman as a world leader. Think About:• his behavior toward Stalin• his economic support of European nations• his support of West BerlinANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Truman was an effective leader who took firm actions to contain Soviet influence and support the Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift.He overreacted and was too belligerent.continued . . .
48S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT3. Which of the two superpowers do you think was more successful in achieving its aims during the period 1945–1949?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:The Soviets were most successful because they extended their influence into Eastern Europe.The United States was more successful because it broke the blockade of West Berlin and helped rebuild Europe.continued . . .
49S E C T I O N1Origins of the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT4. What were Stalin’s motives in supporting Communist governments in Eastern Europe?ANSWERStalin wanted Eastern Europe as a buffer zone to protect the Soviet Union from an invasion on its western front.End of Section 1
502 The Cold War Heats Up 1. List the major events of the Korean War. HOME2S E C T I O NThe Cold War Heats UpASSESSMENT1. List the major events of the Korean War.Event TwoEvent OneEvent FourEvent SixEvent ThreeEvent FiveEvent SevenJune North Korea invades South Korea.Sept MacArthur launches a counterattack at Inchon.Nov China enters the war.1948 Korea is split into two nations.June U.S. supports South Korea.Sept.-Oct The UN counterattack succeeds.July The Armistice is signed.continued . . .
51S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEASSESSMENT2. What might have happened if MacArthur had convinced Truman to expand the fighting into China? How might today’s world be different?ANSWERA third world war might have broken out, resulting in the obliteration of millions by nuclear weapons.continued . . .
52S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEASSESSMENT3. Many Americans have questioned whether fighting the Korean War was worthwhile. What is your opinion? Why? Think About:• the loss of American lives• the fear of communism that enveloped the country at the time• the stalemate that ended the warANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:The war was not worthwhile because Korea remained a divided nation.The war was worthwhile because, without it, all of Korea might have become Communist.continued . . .
53S E C T I O N2The Cold War Heats UpHOMEASSESSMENT4. At the end of China’s civil war, the United States refused to accept the communist People’s Republic of China as China’s true government. What were the advantages of such a policy? What were the disadvantages?ANSWERAdvantages—The United States remained committed to its policy of containment of Communism.Disadvantages—Refusal to recognize the Communist government in China kept the United States from influencing China and drove China into an alliance with the Soviet Union.End of Section 2
54Anti-Communist fear gripped the country. S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEASSESSMENT1. Give four examples of how anti-Communist fear gripped the country.HUAC investigates un-American activities in Hollywood.Spy cases increase fears.Anti-Communist fear gripped the country.Congress passes the McCarran Act.McCarthy arouses fear of a Communist conspiracy.continued . . .
55S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEASSESSMENT2. If you had lived in this period and had been accused of being a Communist, what would you have done? Think About:• the Hollywood Ten, who refused to answer questions• the Rosenbergs, who pleaded the Fifth AmendmentANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:I would have refused to name others because that would have been the honorable course to take.I would have shown loyalty to the United States by answering the committee’s questions.continued . . .
56S E C T I O N3The Cold War at HomeHOMEASSESSMENT3. Choose one of the following roles: Harry Truman, a member of HUAC, Judge Irving Kaufman, or Joseph McCarthy. As the person you have chosen, explain your motivation for opposing communism.ANSWERTruman: He feared the spread of communism in Asia and Europe.HUAC: Its members believed that communists were sneaking propaganda into films.Irving Kaufman: He believed that Communist spies were responsible for the Korean War.Joseph McCarthy: He believed that communism was infiltrating the country.End of Section 3
57Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT2. How might the Cold War have progressed if the U-2 incident had never occurred? Think About:• the mutual distrust between the Soviet Union and the United States• the outcome of the incidentANSWERThe U-2 incident greatly increased tension. Had it not happened, the United States and the Soviet Union might have taken steps to resolve their differences.continued . . .
58Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT3. Which of the two superpowers do you think contributed more to Cold War tensions during the 1950s?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:The Soviets contributed more to Cold War tension because they took over Eastern Europe, crushed the Hungarian Uprising, and rejected Eisenhower’s “open skies” proposal.The United States contributed more to Cold War tensions because of the U-2 incident, the Eisenhower Doctrine, and United States involvement in Guatemala and Iran.Both countries were equally at fault.continued . . .
59Two Nations Live on the Edge S E C T I O N4Two Nations Live on the EdgeGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT4. Should one nation have the right to remove another nation’s head of government from power? If so, when? If not, why?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Yes: if the head of government has policies that threaten the other nation’s existenceNo: Every country has the right to determine its own government without outside interference.End of Section 4