Presentation on theme: "26 Cold War Conflicts HOME CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the international and domestic tensions resulting from the Cold War."— Presentation transcript:
26 Cold War Conflicts HOME CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the international and domestic tensions resulting from the Cold War
This chapter covers the beginnings of the Cold War under the Truman presidency as it affected both foreign and domestic policies. Peace after World War II was marred by a return to the 1917 rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union. Truman and his advisors introduced the basic Cold War policies of containment in the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. With the victory of the communists in Asia as well, the Cold War prompted the U.S. to rebuild its World War II enemies of Germany and Japan as counterweights to the Soviets. At home, Americans wanted to return to normal by bringing the troops back home, spending for consumer goods and re-establishing family life but many changing social patterns brought anxieties. A second Red Scare was caused by the Cold War rhetoric of a bipartisan foreign policy and Truman’s loyalty program but Senator Joseph McCarthy’s tactics symbolized the era. Defense spending increased and the American economy became dependent on it to maintain recovery. Truman tried to extend elements of the New Deal in his Fair Deal but with minimal success.
Chronology 1941 Henry Luce forecasts the dawn of "the American Century" 1944 GI Bill of Rights authorizes educational + benefits for WW II veterans International Monetary Fund and World Bank founded at Bretton Woods 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in office; Harry Truman becomes president United Nations charter signed; World War II ends; Strike wave begins Truman proposes program of economic reforms 1946 Employment Act creates Council of Economic Advisers Winston Churchill's Iron Curtain speech Atomic Energy Act establishes Atomic Energy Commission Republicans win control of Congress Benjamin Spock publishes Baby And Child Care 1947 Americans for Democratic Action founded Truman Doctrine; Congress appropriates $400 million for Greece/Turkey Federal Employees Loyalty and Security Program established and attorney general's list of subversive organizations authorized Taft-Harley Act restricts union activities National Security Act establishes Department of Defense, the National Security Council, and the Central Intelligence Agency House Un-American Activities Committee hearings in Hollywood
1948 State of Israel founded; Berlin blockade begins Henry Wallace nominated for president on Progressive Party ticket Truman’s peacetime draft; desegregates armed forces + civil service Truman wins election; Democrats sweep both houses of Congress 1949 Truman’s Fair Deal; North Atlantic Treaty Organization created Communists led by Mao Zedong win in China; Berlin blockade ends Soviet Union explodes atomic bomb 1950 Alger Hiss convicted of perjury Senator Joseph McCarthy begins anticommunist crusade Republic of China sign an alliance Adoption of NSC-68 consolidates presidential war powers Korean War begins Internal Security (McCarran) Act requires registration of communist organizations and arrest of communist during national emergencies 1951 Truman dismisses General Douglas MacArthur Armistice talks begin in Korea 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act retains quota system, lifts ban on immigration of Asian peoples, bans "subversives" + homosexuals US explodes first hydrogen bomb; Eisenhower presidency; Nixon VP 1953 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed for atomic espionage Armistice ends fighting in Korea 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings end 1955 Warsaw Pact created
Concepts “To err is Truman” George Kennan’s “containment” policy, implosion Loyalty act Richard Hofstader, consensus historian Death of a Salesman; Catcher in the Rye UFOs M*A*S*H – screenwriter Ring Lardner, Jr. K1C2 – Korea, communism, corruption Adlai Stevenson [Bakersfield’s Walter Stiern] Nixon’s "Checkers speech"
Un. of Washington, Seattle In 1948 philosophy professor Melvin Rader was falsely accused of being a Communist conspirator. During the cold war era, the federal government was providing substantial support for higher education through the GI Bill. The student population at the University of Washington grew rapidly and a strong sense of community among the students grew, led by older, former soldiers. The Cold War put a damper on this community. Wild charges of communist subversion led several states to require state employees to take loyalty oaths. In this repressed atmosphere, faculty were dismissed, students dropped out of school, and the free speech was restrained on the campuses.
Global Insecurities at War’s End
Financing the Future During WWII, the United States and Soviet Union had temporarily put aside their differences in a common fight. Divergent interests made a continued alliance unlikely. Fears of the return of depression led the United States to take a much more active international stance. The Soviet Union interpreted the aggressive American economic moves as a threat.
The Division of Europe FDR’s realism allowed him to recognize that some kinds of spheres of influence were inevitable for the winning powers. [Division of Poland and Europe at Yalta with link to Churchill’s proposals]
The Policy of Containment
The Truman Doctrine While FDR favored diplomacy and compromise, Truman was committed to a get-tough policy with the Soviets. When civil war threatened the governments in Turkey and Greece, the United States warned of a communist coup and provided $400 million to defeat the rebels. The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to a policy of trying to contain Communism.
The Marshall Plan and the Berlin Crisis The Marshall Plan provided $13 billion to rebuild Europe. The plan had the long-term impact of revitalizing the European capitalist economy and driving a further wedge between the West and Soviet Union. The gap widened when the western zones of Germany merged. When the Soviets cut off land access to West Berlin, the United States airlifted supplies to the city.
NATO and Atomic Diplomacy The United States also created an alliance of anti-Soviet nations, NATO, and the Soviets responded with the Warsaw Pact. The East/West split seemed permanent. The American policy of containing Communism rested on the ability to stop its expansion by military means. After the Soviets developed nuclear weapons, both sides amassed lethal stockpiles. The U.S. and Soviets could not come up with a plan to control them. Within a few years both sides had a stockpile of hydrogen bombs.
Cold War Liberalism
“To Err is Truman” The early years of the Truman presidency were plagued by protests by Americans tired of war-time sacrifices. An inability to bring troops home quickly or end rationing hurt Truman’s popularity. Inflation spread and strikes paralyzed the nation. Congress blocked Truman's plans for reconversion. In 1946, Republicans gained control of Congress and started to undo the New Deal. Over Truman’s veto, Republicans passed the Taft-Hartley bill that curtailed the power of labor.
The 1948 Election Going into the 1948 election the liberal community was divided. Liberals feuded with Truman over how to extend the New Deal and the extent of the Soviet threat. Henry Wallace challenged Truman by running on the Progressive ticket, a campaign effectively quashed by red- baiting. Truman repositioned himself to the left by warning voters that Republicans would make the United States “an economic colony of Wall Street.” He also offered a liberal legislative package that Congress defeated. The Democrats split again over civil rights when segregationists ran Strom Thurmond for president.
Truman’s Victory Truman managed to hold on to the New Deal coalition and won re-election.
The Fair Deal In 1949 he proposed a package of reforms, the Fair Deal. Truman won some gains in public housing, minimum wage and Social Security increases, but little else. Truman helped to define Cold War liberalism as promoting economic growth through expanded foreign trade and federal expenditures, chiefly defense.
The Cold War at Home
The National Security Act of 1947 A climate of fear developed after the war that the United States was the target of or had already fallen prey to subversive influences. The Cold War triggered a massive reordering of governmental power. Established under the National Security Act of 1947, the Defense Department became a huge and powerful bureaucracy. The Department of Defense and the National Science Foundation pursued scientific research, especially related to physics. New agencies like the CIA fed off the fear of communism.
The Loyalty-Security Program Allegedly to combat subversive influences, Truman promoted a loyalty program. The Attorney General published a list of potentially subversive organizations. Many groups disbanded and prior membership in them destroyed individuals’ careers. A wide range of restrictions on alleged subversives passed Congress.
The Red Scare in Hollywood The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) launched investigations into Communist influence in Hollywood. A parade of friendly witnesses denounced Communists. Many people gave names of suspect former friends so that they themselves would be cleared and able to work again. A few witnesses (many blacklisted later) attacked HUAC and a handful went to prison for contempt of Congress.
Spy Cases Public anxieties were heightened when former State Department advisor Alger Hiss was accused of being a Communist spy. Richard Nixon pursued the charges. Hiss went to jail for perjury. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed despite worldwide protests.
McCarthyism Sen. Joseph McCarthy caused a sensation when he charged that 200 Communists worked for the State Department. His lack of evidence did not stop him from striking a chord with many Americans. He played into fears that Communism was a demonic force and that eastern elites had successfully manipulated the public. McCarthyism attacked Jews, blacks, women’s organizations, and homosexuals. Effective use of the media made McCarthyism seem credible. McCarthy’s crusade was destroyed when he went on national TV and appeared deranged, making wild charges of Communist infiltration of the army.
Cold War Culture
An Anxious Mood After World War II, millions of Americans achieved middle-class status. But prosperity did not dispel American anxiety over nuclear war and economic depression. Movies and plays reflected cold war anxieties and alienation as well as anti-communism.
The Family as Bulwark The move to the suburbs, high levels of consumption, and even the rush towards marriage and parenthood illustrated these fears. The baby boom and high consumer spending changed the middle-class family.
Income and Consumer Spending To sustain support of larger families and high rates of consumer spending, a growing number of married, middle-class women sought employment.
The Family Commentators bemoaned the destruction of the traditional family that they linked to the threat of Communism. High-profile experts weighed in with popular books and articles about the dangers of women who abandoned their housewife roles. The conservative trend was also evident in declining numbers of woman college graduates.
Military-Industrial Communities in the West The Cold War impacted the West more than other regions. New military-industrial communities arose, especially in California, and older communities also benefited form federal spending. To accommodate the burgeoning population, new highway systems were built that created housing sprawl, traffic congestion, air pollution and strains on local water supplies.
Zeal for Democracy The revitalization of patriotism during World War II continued after the return of peace. The American Way became a popular theme of public celebrations and patriotic messages spread through public education. Voices of protest arose but had little impact.
End of the Democratic Era
The “Loss” of China In Asia, American foreign policy yielded mixed results. The United States achieved its greatest Asian success in Japan where a host of reforms brought an unprecedented degree of democracy and where they received valuable military bases. In China, Mao Zedong’s Communist revolution overthrew the corrupt, pro-American regime of Jiang Jeishi. The Truman Administration was saddled with the blame for having “lost” China.
The Geography of the Korean War
The Korean War When North Koreans attempted a forced reunification of the peninsula, Truman called it an act of Soviet aggression. Smarting from McCarthyite attacks, Truman felt compelled to act. With the Soviets boycotting the UN, the Security Council authorized sending in troops. American forces, commanded by Douglas MacArthur, first pushed North Koreans back to their side of the dividing line and then went further north. Chinese troops pushed the UN forces back until a costly stalemate settled in.
The Price of National Security Criticized for bypassing Congress, Truman explained that his authority came from NSC-68, a National Security Council position paper that: consolidated decision making advocated a massive buildup of military power The war left Korea devastated and greatly expanded the containment principle far beyond Europe. The military stalemate left many Americans disillusioned with the promise of easy victories.
The Election of 1952 The Korean War also effectively ruined Truman’s presidency, particularly after he fired General MacArthur. After Truman said he would not run for re-election, the Democratic Party turned to Adlai Stevenson who offered no solutions to the key problems. Dwight Eisenhower was the Republican candidate and ran a moderate campaign short on specifics. His running mate, Richard Nixon, waged a relentless attack on Stevenson. Eisenhower effectively used the peace issue, pledging to go to Korea to settle the war. Republicans won control of the White House and Congress.
Rules of George Bernard Shaw Diet (no steak, coffee, or tea) Avoid all vain and unkind criticism of others Keep financial log Devote one evening a week for mediation and examination of conscience Abstain from alcohol Practice some self-denial each day 1/2 hour per day for poetry, spiritual book, writing 1 1/2 hours per week to refresh learning Don't make promises you can't keep Some music for contemplation 1/2 hour yoga or exercise each day
1 Origins of the Cold War 1. Describe the United States actions and the Soviet actions that contributed most to the cold war. continued... U.S. Actions Refusal to allow free elections in Poland Control of Eastern Europe Blockade of West Berlin Marshall Plan Aid to Greece and Turkey Containment Truman Doctrine Berlin Airlift HOME ASSESSMENT MAP Soviet Actions
1 Origins of the Cold War 2. People who had served as aides to President Franklin Roosevelt worried that Truman was not qualified to handle world leadership. Considering what you learned in this section, evaluate Truman as a world leader. Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Truman was an effective leader who took firm actions to contain Soviet influence and support the Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift. He overreacted and was too belligerent. his behavior toward Stalin his economic support of European nations his support of West Berlin HOME ASSESSMENT continued... MAP
1 Origins of the Cold War 3. Which of the two superpowers do you think was more successful in achieving its aims during the period 1945–1949? continued... ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: The Soviets were most successful because they extended their influence into Eastern Europe. The United States was more successful because it broke the blockade of West Berlin and helped rebuild Europe. HOME ASSESSMENT MAP
1 Origins of the Cold War 4. What were Stalin’s motives in supporting Communist governments in Eastern Europe? ANSWER Stalin wanted Eastern Europe as a buffer zone to protect the Soviet Union from an invasion on its western front. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 1 MAP
2 1. List the major events of the Korean War. continued... June 1950 North Korea invades South Korea. HOME ASSESSMENT 1948 Korea is split into two nations. The Cold War Heats Up Sept. 1950 MacArthur launches a counterattack at Inchon. Nov. 1950 China enters the war. June 1950 U.S. supports South Korea. Sept.-Oct. 1950 The UN counterattack succeeds. July 1953 The Armistice is signed. Event Two Event One Event FourEvent Six Event Three Event FiveEvent Seven
2 The Cold War Heats Up 2. What might have happened if MacArthur had convinced Truman to expand the fighting into China? How might today’s world be different? ANSWER A third world war might have broken out, resulting in the obliteration of millions by nuclear weapons. HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
2 The Cold War Heats Up 3. Many Americans have questioned whether fighting the Korean War was worthwhile. What is your opinion? Why? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: The war was not worthwhile because Korea remained a divided nation. The war was worthwhile because, without it, all of Korea might have become Communist. the loss of American lives the fear of communism that enveloped the country at the time the stalemate that ended the war HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
2 The Cold War Heats Up 4. At the end of China’s civil war, the United States refused to accept the communist People’s Republic of China as China’s true government. What were the advantages of such a policy? What were the disadvantages? ANSWER Advantages—The United States remained committed to its policy of containment of Communism. Disadvantages—Refusal to recognize the Communist government in China kept the United States from influencing China and drove China into an alliance with the Soviet Union. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 2
3 The Cold War at Home 1. Give four examples of how anti-Communist fear gripped the country. continued... Anti-Communist fear gripped the country. HOME ASSESSMENT HUAC investigates un-American activities in Hollywood. Spy cases increase fears. Congress passes the McCarran Act. McCarthy arouses fear of a Communist conspiracy.
3 The Cold War at Home 2. If you had lived in this period and had been accused of being a Communist, what would you have done? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: I would have refused to name others because that would have been the honorable course to take. I would have shown loyalty to the United States by answering the committee’s questions. continued... the Hollywood Ten, who refused to answer questions the Rosenbergs, who pleaded the Fifth Amendment HOME ASSESSMENT
3 The Cold War at Home 3. Choose one of the following roles: Harry Truman, a member of HUAC, Judge Irving Kaufman, or Joseph McCarthy. As the person you have chosen, explain your motivation for opposing communism. ANSWER Truman: He feared the spread of communism in Asia and Europe. HUAC: Its members believed that communists were sneaking propaganda into films. Irving Kaufman: He believed that Communist spies were responsible for the Korean War. Joseph McCarthy: He believed that communism was infiltrating the country. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 3
4 Two Nations Live on the Edge 2. How might the Cold War have progressed if the U-2 incident had never occurred? Think About: ANSWER The U-2 incident greatly increased tension. Had it not happened, the United States and the Soviet Union might have taken steps to resolve their differences. the mutual distrust between the Soviet Union and the United States the outcome of the incident HOME ASSESSMENT continued... GRAPH
4 Two Nations Live on the Edge 3. Which of the two superpowers do you think contributed more to Cold War tensions during the 1950s? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: The Soviets contributed more to Cold War tension because they took over Eastern Europe, crushed the Hungarian Uprising, and rejected Eisenhower’s “open skies” proposal. The United States contributed more to Cold War tensions because of the U-2 incident, the Eisenhower Doctrine, and United States involvement in Guatemala and Iran. Both countries were equally at fault. HOME ASSESSMENT continued... GRAPH
4 Two Nations Live on the Edge 4. Should one nation have the right to remove another nation’s head of government from power? If so, when? If not, why? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Yes: if the head of government has policies that threaten the other nation’s existence No: Every country has the right to determine its own government without outside interference. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 4 GRAPH